Atlas of the Flora of New England

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Genera - V

Verbena (see also Glandularia)
Viscaria (see Silene)

VACCARIA (Family: Caryophyllaceae)

VACCARIA HISPANICA (Miller) Rauschert - Cowherb. 2n = (20), (24), (28), 30, (60).

Waste places, roadsides, fields. From Eurasia. [SAPONARIA VACCARIA Linnaeus]

VACCINIUM (Family: Ericaceae)

Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton - Early Lowbush Blueberry. 2n = (24), 48.

Openings, wood borders, old pastures, dry, open barrens, peats, and rocks. [V. angustifolium var. hypolasium Fernald; V. angustifolium var. laevifolium House; V. angustifolium var. nigrum (Alph. Wood) Dole; V. brittonii Porter ex E.P. Bicknell; V. lamarckii Camp]

Vaccinium boreale I.V. Hall & Aalders - Northern Blueberry. 2n = 24.

Alpine heaths and meadows, open, rocky uplands.

Vaccinium cespitosum Michaux - Dwarf Bilberry. 2n = 24.

Alpine and subalpine areas, but also rocky shores at lower elevations.

Vaccinium corymbosum Linnaeus - Highbush Blueberry. 2n = (24), 48, (72).

Swamps, bogs, shores, low woods, dry uplands. [V. corymbosum var. albiflorum (Hooker) Fernald; V. corymbosum var. glabrum A. Gray; V. caesariense Mackenzie; NOTE: Our treatment differs from Flora of North America, Volume 8 (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 2009) in that we treat V. fuscatum Aiton separately, based on the judgment of some botanists (e.g., Uttal 1987; Ward 1974) and one of us (Boufford).]

Vaccinium fuscatum Aiton - Black Highbush Blueberry. 2n = 24.

Swamps, bogs, low woods. [V. atrococcum (A. Gray) A. Heller; See note under preceding taxon.]

Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton - Large Cranberry. 2n = 24.

Bogs, swamps, wet shores. [Oxycoccus macrocarpus (Aiton) Persoon]

Vaccinium myrtilloides Michaux - Velvetleaf Blueberry. 2n = 24.

Margins of woods, thin woods, bogs, clearings.

Vaccinium oxycoccos Linnaeus - Small Cranberry. 2n = 24, 48, 60, 72.

Sphagnum bogs. [V. oxycoccos var. ovalifolium Michaux; Oxycoccus palustris Persoon var. palustris; O. palustris var. ovalifolius (Michaux) F. Seymour]

Vaccinium pallidum Aiton - Late Lowbush Blueberry. 2n = 24, (48), (72).

Dry fields, dry, open woods, clearings. [V. vacillans Kalm ex Torrey var. vacillans; V. vacillans var. crinitum Fernald]

Vaccinium stamineum Linnaeus - Deerberry. 2n = 24.

Dry, open woods, thickets, clearings.

Vaccinium uliginosum Linnaeus subsp. uliginosum - Alpine Bilberry. 2n = (24), 48, (72).

Rocky or peaty barrens, upper slopes of mountains, alpine thickets. [V. uliginosum var. alpinum Bigelow]

Vaccinium vitis-idaea Linnaeus - Mountain Cranberry. 2n = 24.

Rocky or dry, peaty soil, chiefly in exposed habitats at higher altitudes. [V. vitis-idaea var. minus Loddiges, G. Loddiges, & W. Loddiges]

Vaccinium hybrids

Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton X V. myrtilloides Michaux - .

Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton X V. uliginosum Linnaeus - .

Vaccinium X atlanticum E.P. Bicknell (pro species) - .

[V. angustifolium Aiton X V. corymbosum Linnaeus]

Vaccinium boreale I.V. Hall & Aalders X V. myrtilloides Michaux - .

Vaccinium cespitosum Michaux X V. myrtilloides Michaux - .

Vaccinium corymbosum Linnaeus X V. fuscatum Aiton - .

Vaccinium corymbosum Linnaeus X V. myrtilloides Michaux - .

Vaccinium corymbosum Linnaeus X V. pallidum Aiton - .

Vaccinium fuscatum Aiton X V. pallidum Aiton - .

VAHLODEA (Family: Poaceae)

Vahlodea atropurpurea (Wahlenberg) Fries ex Hartman subsp. atropurpurea - Mountain Hairgrass. 2n = 14.

High altitudes. [Deschampsia atropurpurea (Wahlenberg) Scheele]

VALERIANA (Family: Caprifoliaceae)

VALERIANA OFFICINALIS Linnaeus - Garden-Heliotrope. 2n = 14, 28, (42), 56, (70).

Roadsides, thickets, woodland margins, waste places. From Eurasia.

Valeriana sitchensis Bongard subsp. uliginosa (Torrey & A. Gray) F.G. Meyer - . 2n = ?

Calcareous swamps and bogs, usually with Thuja occidentalis. [V. uliginosa (Torrey & A. Gray) Rydberg ex Britton]

VALERIANELLA (Family: Caprifoliaceae)

VALERIANELLA LOCUSTA (Linnaeus) Laterrade - Lamb’s-lettuce. 2n = 14, 16.

Waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia, northwestern Africa. [V. OLITORIA (Linnaeus) Pollich]

Valerianella radiata (Linnaeus) Dufresne - . 2n = 90.

Riverbanks, moist fields, low ground. [V. radiata var. fernaldii Dyal]

Valerianella umbilicata (Sullivant) Alphonso Wood - . 2n = 30.

Damp, open places. [V. intermedia Dyal]

VALLISNERIA (Family: Hydrocharitaceae)

Vallisneria americana Michaux - Water-celery. 2n = 20.

Ponds and quiet streams.

VENTENATA (Family: Poaceae)

VENTENATA DUBIA (Leers) Cosson - . 2n = 14.

Roadsides, fields. From southern Europe, northern Africa, Middle East. [AVENA DUBIA Leers]

VERATRUM (Family: Melanthiaceae)

Veratrum viride Aiton - White Hellebore. 2n = 32.

Swampy woods, wet meadows.

VERBASCUM (Family: Scrophulariaceae)

VERBASCUM BLATTARIA Linnaeus - Moth Mullein. 2n = 30, (32).

Waste places, roadsides, fields, open woods. From Eurasia, northwestern Africa.

VERBASCUM DENSIFLORUM Bertoloni - . 2n = (30), 32, 36.

Railroads, roadsides, waste places. From Europe, the Caucasus.

VERBASCUM LYCHNITIS Linnaeus subsp. LYCHNITIS - White Mullein. 2n = 26, 32, 34.

Roadsides, fields, waste places, wool waste. From Eurasia.

VERBASCUM NIGRUM Linnaeus - Black Mullein. 2n = 30, (34).

Roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia.

VERBASCUM PHLOMOIDES Linnaeus - Orange Mullein. 2n = 32, 34.

Roadsides, railroads, fields, waste places. From Eurasia.

VERBASCUM THAPSUS Linnaeus subsp. THAPSUS - Common Mullein. 2n = (30), (32), (34), 36.

Roadsides, fields, rocky banks, waste places. From Eurasia.

Verbascum hybrid


VERBENA (Family: Verbenaceae)

VERBENA BONARIENSIS Linnaeus - . 2n = (12), (14), 28.

Gravel pit. From South America. [V. BONARIENSIS var. CONGLOMERATA Briquet]

VERBENA BRACTEATA Lagasca & Rodríguez - . 2n = 14, (28).

Waste places, fields, roadsides, in open, sandy soils. From farther west.

Verbena hastata Linnaeus - Simpler’s-joy. 2n = 14.

Wet thickets, shores, marshes, meadows, fields, roadsides.

VERBENA HISPIDA Ruiz & Pavón - . 2n = ?

Waste places. From South America.

VERBENA OFFICINALIS Linnaeus - European Vervain. 2n = 14, 28, (42), (70).

Waste places. From Eurasia.

Verbena simplex Lehmann - . 2n = 14.

Dry fields, roadsides, railroads, rocky places, sandplains.

VERBENA STRICTA Ventenat - Hoary Vervain. 2n = 14.

Dry fields, roadsides, waste places. From farther west.

Verbena urticifolia Linnaeus - White Vervain. 2n = 14, 16.

Rich thickets and woodland margins, alluvial soil, streambanks, meadows, fields, roadsides, waste places. [V. urticifolia var. leiocarpa L.M. Perry & Fernald]

Verbena hybrids

Verbena X blanchardii Moldenke - .

[V. hastata Linnaeus X V. simplex Lehmann]

Verbena X engelmannii Moldenke - .

[V. hastata Linnaeus X V. urticifolia Linnaeus]


[V. hastata Linnaeus X V. STRICTA Ventenat]

VERBESINA (Family: Asteraceae)

VERBESINA ALTERNIFOLIA (Linnaeus) Britton ex Kearney - Wingstem. 2n = (ca. 60), (ca. 62), 68.

Woods borders, thickets, along streams, in rich soil. From farther south and west. [Actinomeris alternifolia (Linnaeus) de Candolle]

VERBESINA ENCELIOIDES (Cavanilles) Bentham & Hooker (son) ex A. Gray - Golden Crownbeard. 2n = 34.

Wool waste. From farther west. [V. ENCELIOIDES var. EXAURICULATA B.L. Robinson & Greenman]

VERNONIA (Family: Asteraceae)

VERNONIA FASCICULATA Michaux - Western Ironweed. 2n = 34.

Sandy fields, wool waste. From farther west.

VERNONIA MISSURICA Rafinesque - 2n = 34.

Sandy fields, wool waste. From farther south and west.

Vernonia noveboracensis (Linnaeus) Michaux - 2n = 18, 34.

Meadows, marshes, along streams, roadside ditches, swamps, wet pastures.

Vernonia hybrid


VERONICA (Family: Plantaginaceae)

VERONICA AGRESTIS Linnaeus - Field Speedwell. 2n = (14), 28.

Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Europe, northern Africa.

Veronica americana Schweinitz ex Bentham - American Brooklime. 2n = 36.

Springheads, brooksides, streambanks, swamps, pool margins.

VERONICA ANAGALLIS-AQUATICA Linnaeus - Water Speedwell. 2n = (18), 36.

Wet ditches, springs, brooksides, shores, swamps. From Eurasia, Africa, southern and western South America. [V. CATENATA misapplied; V. COMOSA misapplied; Note: Some recent treatments treat V. CATENATA Pennell as a separate species occurring in New England.]

VERONICA ARVENSIS Linnaeus - Corn Speedwell. 2n = 16.

Open, waste places, ledges, fields, open woods, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

VERONICA BECCABUNGA Linnaeus subsp. BECCABUNGA - European Brooklime. 2n = 18, (36).

Wet ditches, freshwater shores, moist woods. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

VERONICA CHAMAEDRYS Linnaeus - Germander Speedwell. 2n = (16), 32.

Fields, thickets, woodland margins, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia.

VERONICA FILIFORMIS Smith - Creeping Speedwell. 2n = 14.

Waste places. From the Caucasus.

VERONICA LONGIFOLIA Linnaeus - Garden Speedwell. 2n = 34, (36), (64), 68, (70).

Roadsides, thickets, fields, waste places. From Eurasia.

Veronica officinalis Linnaeus - Common Speedwell. 2n = (18), (32), (34), 36.

Open woods, clearings, fields, hills, usually in dry soil.

Veronica peregrina Linnaeus - Purslane Speedwell. 2n = (28), 52, (54).

Waste places, roadsides, fields, meadows, in the open, usually in moist soil. [V. peregrina var. xalapensis (Kunth) Pennell]

VERONICA PERSICA Poiret - Bird’s-eye Speedwell. 2n = 28.

Waste places, roadsides. Probably from southwestern Asia. [V. TOURNEFORTII misapplied]

VERONICA POLITA Fries - . 2n = 14, (18), (28).

Waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

Veronica scutellata Linnaeus - Marsh Speedwell. 2n = 18.

Swamps, meadows, shores, other wet places.

Veronica serpyllifolia Linnaeus - Thyme-leaved Speedwell. 2n = 14, (28).

Fields, meadows, roadsides, damp, open woods, clearings, springy places, brooksides, shores, swamps. Native in northern New England, naturalized elsewhere in New England (from Eurasia, northwestern Africa). [V. serpyllifolia var. humifusa (Dickson) Vahl; V. tenella Allioni]

VERONICA SPICATA Linnaeus - . 2n = (18), (34), (36), (56), 68.

Roadsides, fields, open trailsides. From Eurasia.

VERONICA SPURIA Linnaeus - Bastard Speedwell. 2n = 34, (68).

Wste places, meadows. From From central Asia. [PSEUDOLYSIMACHION SPURIUM (Linnaeus) Rauschert]

VERONICA TEUCRIUM Linnaeus - . 2n = (16), (48), 64, (128).

Roadsides, fields. From Eurasia. [V. AUSTRIACA Linnaeus subsp. TEUCRIUM (Linnaeus) D.A. Webb; V. LATIFOLIA Linnaeus - rejected name]

VERONICA VERNA Linnaeus - Spring Speedwell. 2n = (14), 16.

Railroad ballast. From Eurasia, northwestern Africa.

Veronica wormskjoldii Roemer & Schultes subsp. wormskjoldii - American Alpine Speedwell. 2n = 36.

Alpine rills, ravines, moss and rocks. [V. alpina Linnaeus var. unalaschcensis Chamisso & Schlechtendal]

Veronica hybrid

VERONICA SPICATA Linnaeus X V. SPURIA Linnaeus - .

VERONICASTRUM (Family: Plantaginaceae)

Veronicastrum virginicum (Linnaeus) Farwell - Culver’s-root. 2n = 34, (68).

Rich woods, meadows, thickets, fields, roadsides.

VIBURNUM (Family: Adoxaceae)

Viburnum acerifolium Linnaeus - Maple-leaved Viburnum. 2n = 18.

Open woods.

Viburnum cassinoides Linnaeus - Witherod. 2n = 18.

Thickets, clearings, swamps, woodland margins, usually in moist soil. [V. nudum Linnaeus var. cassinoides (Linnaeus) Torrey & A. Gray]

Viburnum dentatum Linnaeus var. lucidum Aiton - Smooth Arrow-wood. 2n = 36.

Damp thickets, swamps, moist woods. [V. recognitum Fernald]

VIBURNUM DILATATUM Thunberg - Linden Viburnum. 2n = 18.

Woods. From eastern Asia.

Viburnum edule (Michaux) Rafinesque - Squashberry. 2n = 18.

Woods, thickets, clearings by shores.

VIBURNUM LANTANA Linnaeus - Wayfaring-tree. 2n = 18.

Waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

Viburnum lantanoides Michaux - Hobblebush. 2n = 18.

Rich, moist woods, cool ravines, stream margins. [V. alnifolium misapplied]

Viburnum lentago Linnaeus - Nannyberry. 2n = 18.

Moist thickets, woodland margins, streambanks, roadsides.

Viburnum nudum Linnaeus - Possum-haw. 2n = 18.


VIBURNUM OPULUS Linnaeus var. OPULUS - Guelder-rose. 2n = 18.

Roadsides, shores, thickets, field margins. From Eurasia.

Viburnum opulus Linnaeus var. americanum Aiton - Highbush Cranberry. 2n = 18.

Wet thickets, shores, swamps, cool, moist woods, railroads. [V. trilobum Marshall]

VIBURNUM PLICATUM Thunberg - Japanese Snowball. 2n = 18, 72.

Roadsides, rich or moist woods. From eastern Asia.

Viburnum prunifolium Linnaeus - Black Haw. 2n = 18.

Rich woods, dry limestone ledges, dry copse margins, dry, open rocky ground.

Viburnum rafinesqueanum Schultes - Downy Arrow-wood. 2n = 36.

Waste places. Thickets, dry, rocky or open woods, dry ledges, often calcareous. [V. pubescens misapplied]

VIBURNUM SETIGERUM Hance - Tea Viburnum. 2n = 18.

Fields, woodland margins, hillsides. From eastern Asia.

VIBURNUM SIEBOLDII Miquel - . 2n = 16.

Woodland margins, disturbed woodlands, moist deciduous woods, field margins, waste places, cemeteries. From Japan.

Viburnum venosum Britton - . 2n = ?

Sandy soil, brackish marshes. [V. dentatum var. pubescens Aiton; V. dentatum Linnaeus var. venosum (Britton) Gleason]

VICIA (Family: Fabaceae)

VICIA CRACCA Linnaeus - Cow Vetch. 2n = (12), 14, (21), 28.

Fields, meadows, roadsides, waste areas, thickets, shores. From Eurasia.

VICIA ERVILIA (Linnaeus) Willdenow - Bitter Vetch. 2n = 14.

Ballast waste. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

VICIA FABA Linnaeus - Broad Bean. 2n = 12, (14), (24).

Fields, waste places. Origin unknown (long in cultivation).

VICIA GRANDIFLORA Scopoli - . 2n = 14.

Fields. From Eurasia.

VICIA HIRSUTA (Linnaeus) Gray - Tiny Vetch. 2n = (12), 14.

Waste places, roadsides, fields. From Eurasia, Africa.

VICIA LATHYROIDES Linnaeus - Spring Vetch. 2n = (10), 12.

Roadsides, fields, usually sandy. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

VICIA PANNONICA Crantz - Hungarian Vetch. 2n = 12, (14).

Roadsides. From Eurasia.

VICIA SATIVA Linnaeus subsp. SATIVA - Common Vetch. 2n = 10, 12, (14).

Fields, roadsides, waste places. Origin unknown.

VICIA SATIVA Linnaeus subsp. NIGRA (linnaeus) Ehrhart - Smaller Common Vetch. 2n = 12, (14).

Waste places, railroads, roadsides, fields, meadows, sea beaches, shores. From Europe, Asia, Africa. [V. ANGUSTIFOLIA Linnaeus var. ANGUSTIFOLIA; V. ANGUSTIFOLIA var. SEGETALIS (Thuillier) W.D.J. Koch; V. ANGUSTIFOLIA var. UNCINATA (Desvaux ex Boreau) Rouy]

VICIA SEPIUM Linnaeus var. SEPIUM - Bush Vetch. 2n = (12), 14.

Roadsides, railroads, fields. From Europe, Asia.

VICIA TETRASPERMA (Linnaeus) Schreber - Sparrow Vetch. 2n = 14.

Fields, railroads, roadsides, waste places. From Europe, Asia, northern Africa. [V. TETRASPERMA var. TENUISSIMA Druce]

VICIA VILLOSA Roth var. VILLOSA - Winter Vetch. 2n = 14, (28).

Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

VICIA VILLOSA Roth var. GLABRESCENS W.D.J. Koch - . 2n = 14, (28).

Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [V. VILLOSA subsp. VARIA (Host) Corbière; V. DASCYCARPA Tenore]

VINCA (Family: Apocynaceae)

VINCA HERBACEA Waldstein & Kitaibel - . 2n = 46, (92).

Terraces and wooded slope of riverbank. From Eurasia.

VINCA MAJOR Linnaeus - Large Periwinkle. 2n = (90), 92.

Waste places. From Eurasia. [V. MAJOR var. VARIEGATA Loudon]

VINCA MINOR Linnaeus - Common Periwinkle. 2n = 46.

Roadsides, cemeteries, waste places, open woods near habitation. From Eurasia.

VINCETOXICUM (Family: Apocynaceae)

VINCETOXICUM NIGRUM (Linnaeus) Moench - Black Swallow-wort. 2n = 22, 44.

Roadsides, waste places, thickets, cemeteries, field margins. From southern Europe. [CYNANCHUM LOUISEAE Kartesz & Gandhi; C. NIGRUM (Linnaeus) Persoon, non Cavanilles]

VINCETOXICUM ROSSICUM (Kleopow) Barbaricz - Pale Swallow-wort. 2n = ?

Roadsides, waste places, cemeteries, field margins. From eastern Europe. [Cynanchum nigrum Kleopow]

VIOLA (Family: Violaceae)

Viola adunca Smith var. adunca - . 2n = (10), 20, (30), 40.

Dry, open woods, fields, rocky slopes, roadsides, railroads, often in dry, sandy soil.

Viola affinis Leconte - . 2n = 54.

Rich, moist woods, moist fields, meadows, damp thickets, streambanks, shores. [V. venustula Greene]

VIOLA ARVENSIS Murray - European Field Pansy. 2n = (26), 34, (42).

Fields, waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

Viola blanda Willdenow - Sweet White Violet. 2n = 44.

Rich, moist woods, swamps. [V. blanda var. palustriformis A. Gray; V. incognita Brainerd var. incognita; V. incognita var. forbesii Brainerd]

Viola brittoniana Pollard - Coastal Violet. 2n = 54.

Sandy soil, often near streams, meadows or coastal marshes. [V. brittoniana var. pectinata (E.P. Bicknell) Alexander; V. X lesmehrhoffii A. Haines; V. pectinata E.P. Bicknell; V. pedatifida G. Don var. brittoniana (Pollard) R.J. Little & L.E. McKinney]

Viola canadensis Linnaeus var. canadensis - Tall White Violet. 2n = 24.

Rich, moist, deciduous woods, often calcareous or rocky.

Viola cucullata Aiton - Marsh Blue Violet. 2n = 54.

Swamps, wet meadows, rich woods, streamsides.

Viola hirsutula Brainerd - . 2n = ?

Dry, sterile fields.

Viola labradorica Schrank - American Dog Violet. 2n = 20, 40.

Rich woods, woodland clearings, meadows, swamps, bogs, alluvial thickets, streambanks, ledges, talus. [V. adunca Leconte var. minor (Hooker) Fernald; V. conspersa Reichenbach]

Viola lanceolata Linnaeus - Lance-leaved Violet. 2n = 24.

Shores, swamps, meadows, in damp or wet, sandy or sphagnous, open or slightly shaded soil.

Viola mackloskeyi F.E. Lloyd - Northern White Violet. 2n = 24.

Swamps, wet or springy woods, meadows, shores, alpine areas, often among mosses. [V. pallens (Banks ex Gingins) Brainerd]

Viola nephrophylla Greene - Northern Bog Violet. 2n = 54.

Rocky or gravelly river shores, often calcareous, bogs, meadows, rich, moist woods.

Viola novae-angliae House - . 2n = ?

Rocky, gravelly or sandy river shores. [V. sororia Willdenow var. grisea (Fernald) L.E. McKinney]

VIOLA ODORATA Linnaeus - English Violet. 2n = (18), 20, (60).

Fields, waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.

Viola palmata Linnaeus var. palmata - Tall Wood Violet. 2n = 54.

Wooded hillsides, rich, deciduous woods, calcareous ledges. [V. palmata var. triloba (Schweinitz) Gingins ex de Candolle; V. triloba Schweinitz var. triloba; V. triloba var. dilatata (Elliott) Brainerd]

Viola palustris Linnaeus - Alpine Marsh Violet. 2n = 48.

Alpine and subalpine brooksides and rocky slopes.

Viola pedata Linnaeus var. pedata - Tall Bird-foot Violet. 2n = 54, 56.

Dry, open, sandy soil. [V. pedata var. lineariloba de Candolle]

Viola primulifolia Linnaeus var. primulifolia - . 2n = 24.

Meadows, swamps, shores, thin, moist woods. [V. primulifolia var. acuta (Bigelow) Torrey & A. Gray]

Viola pubescens Aiton var. pubescens - Downy Yellow Violet. 2n = 12.

Rich, often dry, usually deciduous woods. [V. pubescens var. eriocarpa Nuttall; V. pubescens var. peckii House]

Viola pubescens Aiton var. scabriuscula Torrey & A. Gray - Smooth Yellow Violet. 2n = 12.

Rich, often moist woods. [V. pubescens var. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) B. Boivin; V. pensylvanica Michaux var. pensylvanica; V. pensylvanica var. leiocarpa (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald]

Viola renifolia A. Gray - . 2n = 24.

Rich, cool, often moist, woods, swamps, damp thickets. [V. renifolia var. brainerdii (Greene) Fernald]

Viola rostrata Pursh - Long-spurred Violet. 2n = 20.

Rich, often calcareous, woods.

Viola rotundifolia Michaux - Early Yellow Violet. 2n = 12.

Rich woods.

Viola sagittata Aiton var. sagittata - Arrow-leaved Violet. 2n = 54.

Sterile meadows, dry, sandy fields and open woods, clearings, roadsides. [V. emarginata (Nuttall) Leconte]

Viola sagittata Aiton var. ovata (Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray - . 2n = 54.

Dry, sterile fields, woods, roadsides and clearings, railroads. [V. fimbriatula Smith]

Viola selkirkii Pursh ex Goldie - Great-spurred Violet. 2n = (12), 24.

Rich woods, rocky, shady slopes.

Viola sororia Willdenow - Common Blue Violet. 2n = 54.

Rich woods, thickets, streambanks, fields, clearings, roadsides, waste places. [V. latiuscula Greene; V. septentrionalis Greene]

Viola striata Aiton - Cream Violet. 2n = 20.

Brookside in woodland.

Viola subsinuata (Greene) Greene - . 2n = 54.

Rich, often rocky, woods, calcareous ledges, dry hillsides, roadsides.

VIOLA TRICOLOR Linnaeus var. TRICOLOR - Heart’s-ease. 2n = 26, (28), (34), (42), (46).

Field, waste places, gravel banks, roadsides, open woods. From Eurasia.

Viola hybrids

Viola adunca Smith X V. labradorica Schrank - .

Viola affinis Leconte X V. nephrophylla Greene - .

[Viola X subaffinis House]

Viola affinis Leconte X V. palmata Linnaeus - .

Viola affinis Leconte X V. sagittata Aiton var. sagittata - .

Viola affinis Leconte X V. sagittata Aiton var. ovata (Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray - .

[Viola X hollickii House (pro species)]

Viola affinis Leconte X V. sororia Willdenow - .

[Viola X champlainensis House; V. × filicetorum Greene (pro species)]

Viola brittoniana Pollard X V. cucullata Aiton - .

[Viola X notabilis E.P. Bicknell (pro species)]

Viola brittoniana Pollard X V. lanceolata Linnaeus - .

Viola brittoniana Pollard X V. sagittata Aiton var. sagittata - .

Viola brittoniana Pollard X V. sagittata Aiton var. ovata (Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray - .

[Viola X mulfordae Pollard (pro species)]

Viola brittoniana Pollard X V. sororia Willdenow - .

[Viola X insolita House]

Viola cucullata Aiton X V. nephrophylla Greene - .

[Viola X insessa House]

Viola cucullata Aiton X V. palmata Linnaeus - .

[Viola X greenmanii House; V. X ryoniae House]

Viola cucullata Aiton X V. sagittata Linnaeus var. sagittata - .

[Viola X festata House] Note: Since one of the parent species, V. sagittata var. sagittata, is limited primarily to southern New England, the specimens from northern New England identified as this hybrid are more likely to be the next hybrid listed below.

Viola cucullata Aiton X V. sagittata Linnaeus var. ovata (Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray - .

[Viola X porteriana Pollard (pro species)]

Viola cucullata Aiton X V. sororia Willdenow - .

[Viola X bissellii House; ? V. papilionacea Pursh]

Viola labradorica Schrank X V. rostrata Pursh - .

[Viola X malteana House]

Viola labradorica Schrank X V. striata Aiton - .

[Viola X eclipes H.E. Ballard]

Viola lanceolata Linnaeus X V. primulifolia Linnaeus - .

[Viola X modesta House - illegitimate name]

Viola palmata Linnaeus X V. sagittata Linnaeus var. sagittata - .

[Viola X mistura House (pro species)]

Viola palmata Linnaeus X V. sagittata Linnaeus var. ovata (Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray - .

[Viola X convicta House; V. X robinsoniana House]

Viola palmata Linnaeus X V. sororia Willdenow - .

[Viola X populifolia Greene (pro species)]

Viola sagittata Linnaeus var. sagittata X V. sororia Willdenow - .

[Viola X conjugens Greene (pro species)]

Viola sagittata Linnaeus var. ovata (Nuttall) Torrey & A. Gray X V. sororia Willdenow - .

[Viola X fernaldii House]

VITIS (Family: Vitaceae)

Vitis aestivalis Michaux - Summer Grape. 2n = 38.

Open woodlands, thickets, roadsides, rocky outcrops and slopes. [V. aestivalis var. argentifolia (Munson ex L.H. Bailey) Fernald; V. aestivalis var. bicolor Deam]

Vitis labrusca Linnaeus - Fox Grape. 2n = 38.

Thickets, streambanks, open woodlands, woodland and pond margins, roadsides.

VITIS PALMATA Vahl - Catbird Grape. 2n = 38.

Railroads. From farther south and west.

Vitis riparia Michaux - Riverbank Grape. 2n = 38, (40).

Streambanks, alluvial woodlands, meadows, roadsides, rich thickets. [V. riparia var. syrticola (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald; V. VULPINA misapplied]

VITIS VINIFERA Linnaeus - Wine Grape. 2n = 38, (76).

Waste places. From Eurasia, northwestern Africa.

VITIS VULPINA Linnaeus - Winter Grape. 2n = 38.

Roadsides, thickets. From farther south and west.

Vitis hybrids


[V. labrusca Linnaeus X VITIS spp.]

Vitis X novae-angliae Fernald (pro species) - .

[V. labrusca Linnaeus X V. riparia Michaux]

VULPIA (Family: Poaceae)

VULPIA BROMOIDES (Linnaeus) Gray - . 2n = 14, (42).

Waste places. From Europe. [V. DERTONENSIS (Allioni) Gola; FESTUCA DERTONENSIS (Allioni) Ascherson & Graebner]

VULPIA MYUROS (Linnaeus) C.C. Gmelin var. MYUROS - Rat-tail Fescue. 2n = (14), (28), 42.

Dry fields, waste places. From Europe. [FESTUCA MEGALURA Nuttall; F. MYUROS Linnaeus]

Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydberg var. octoflora - Six-weeks Fescue. 2n = 14.

Marsh borders, sandy waste ground.

Vulpia octoflora (Walter) Rydberg var. glauca (Nuttall) Fernald - . 2n = 14.

Dry ledges, sandy soil. [V. octoflora var. tenella (Willdenow) Fernald; Festuca octoflora Walter var. glauca (Nuttall) Fernald; F. octoflora var. tenella (Willdenow) Fernald]

Designed by Ray Angelo. Revised June 11, 2023