Atlas of the Flora of New England

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Genera - E

Echinacea
Echinochloa
Echinocystis
Echinodorus (see Helanthium)
Echinops
Echium
Eclipta
Egeria
Eichhornia
Elaeagnus
Elatine
Eleocharis
Eleusine
Eleutherococcus
Ellisia
Elodea (see also Egeria)
Elsholtzia
Elymus (see also Leymus, Taeniatherum and Thinopyrum)
Elytrigia (see Elymus and Thinopyrum)
Emex
Empetrum
Endodeca (see Aristolochia)
Epifagus
Epigaea
Epilobium (see also Chamaenerion)
Epipactis
Equisetum
Eragrostis
Erechtites
Erica
Erigeron
Eriocaulon
Eriophorum (see also Trichophorum)
Erodium
Eruca
Erucastrum
Eryngium
Erysimum
Erythranthe
Erythronium
Erythrostictum (see Hylotelephium<)
Eschscholzia
Eubotrys
Euclidium
Euonymus
Eupatorium (see also Ageratina and Eutrochium)
Euphorbia
Euphrasia
Eurybia
Euthamia
Eutrochium
Exochorda


ECHINACEA (Family: Asteraceae)


ECHINACEA PALLIDA (Nuttall) Nuttall - 2n = 22, 44.


Fields, roadsides. From farther west.


ECHINACEA PURPUREA (Linnaeus) Moench - Eastern Purple Coneflower. 2n = 22.


Dry roadsides, wood margins. From farther south and west.



ECHINOCHLOA (Family: Poaceae)


ECHINOCHLOA COLONA (Linnaeus) Link - Jungle-rice. 2n = (18), (24(, (48), 36, (52), 54, (56), (72), (96), (108), (130).


Waste places, cultivated fields, ditches. From the Old World tropics.


ECHINOCHLOA CRUS-GALLI (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois var. CRUS-GALLI - Barnyard-grass. 2n = (18), 36, (42), (48), (50), 54, (56), (72), (90).


Roadsides, waste places, cultivated ground. From the Old World.


ECHINOCHLOA FRUMENTACEA Link - Japanese Millet. 2n = (36), (48), 54, (56), (72).


Waste ground, roadsides, fields. From eastern Asia. [E. CRUS-GALLI (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois var. FRUMENTACEA (Link) E.G. Camus & A. Camus]


Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauvois) Fernald var. muricata - . 2n = 48.


Marshes, shores, waste places, roadsides. [E. pungens (Poiret) Rydberg]


Echinochloa muricata (P. Beauvois) Fernald var. microstachya Wiegand - . 2n = 36.


Marshes, shores, waste places, roadsides. [E. muricata var. occidentalis Wiegand; E. pungens (Poiret) Rydberg var. microstachya (Wiegand) Fernald & Griscom; E. pungens var. wiegandii Fassett]


Echinochloa walteri (Pursh) A. Heller - . 2n = 36.


Shores, salt marsh borders, wet places.



ECHINOCYSTIS (Family: Cucurbitaceae)


Echinocystis lobata (Michaux) Torrey & A. Gray - Wild Cucumber. 2n = (16), 32.


Moist or wet thickets, rich soil along streams, meadows, roadsides.



ECHINOPS (Family: Asteraceae)


ECHINOPS SPHAEROCEPHALUS Linnaeus - Common Globe-thistle. 2n = (28), 30, 32.


Waste places, roadsides, fields. From Eurasia.



ECHIUM (Family: Boraginaceae)


ECHIUM CRETICUM Linnaeus - . 2n = 16.


Waste places. From the Mediterranean region. [E. AUSTRALE Lamarck]

ECHIUM PLANTAGINEUM Linnaeus - Paterson’s-curse. 2n = 16.


Waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [E. VIOLACEUM misapplied]

ECHIUM VULGARE Linnaeus - Blueweed. 2n. 2n = (16), 32.


Waste places, railroads, dry fields, roadsides. From Eurasia. [E. VULGARE var. PUSTULATUM (Smith) Coincy; E. PUSTULATUM Smith]



ECLIPTA (Family: Asteraceae)


ECLIPTA PROSTRATA (Linnaeus) Linnaeus - Yerba-de-Tajo. 2n = (18), (20), 22, (24).


Waste places. From farther south and west. [E. ALBA (Linnaeus) Hasskarl]



EGERIA (Family: Hydrocharitaceae)


EGERIA DENSA Planchon - . 2n = 46, 48.


Ponds. From Brazil and Argentina. [ELODEA DENSA (Planchon) Caspary; ANACHARIS DENSA (Planchon) Marie-Victorin]



EICHHORNIA (Family: Pontederiaceae)


EICHHORNIA CRASSIPES (Martius) Solms-Laubach - Water-hyacinth. 2n = (18), (30), 32, (58), (64).


Floating in ponds and quiet streams. From South America.



ELAEAGNUS (Family: Elaeagnaceae)


ELAEAGNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA Linnaeus - Russian Olive. 2n = (12), 28.


Roadsides, waste places, streambanks. From Eurasia.


ELAEAGNUS MULTIFLORA Thunberg - Cherry Elaeagnus. 2n = ?


Roadsides, dry woodlands, brook banks. From eastern Asia.


ELAEAGNUS UMBELLATA Thunberg var. PARVIFOLIA (Wallich ex Royle) C.K. Schneider - Autumn Olive. 2n = 18.


Thickets, roadsides, railroads, fields, woodland margins, brook margins, waste places. From Asia.



ELATINE (Family: Elatinaceae)


ELATINE AMBIGUA Wight - . 2n = ?


Pond and lake shores, quiet water of streams. From Asia.


Elatine americana (Pursh) Arnott - . 2n = 36, 70-72.


Muddy shores of ponds and streams, often tidal. [E. triandra Schkuhr var. americana (Pursh) Fassett]


Elatine minima (Nuttall) Fischer & C.A. Meyer - . 2n = ?


Pond and lake shores, usually muddy, often in shallow water.


ELATINE TRIANDRA Schkuhr - . 2n = ca. 40.


Pond and lake shores, quiet water of streams. From Eurasia.



ELEOCHARIS (Family: Cyperaceae)


Eleocharis acicularis (Linnaeus) Roemer & Schultes - . 2n = (10), (18), 20, (56).


Shores, damp low ground, usually in mud.  [E. acicularis var. submersa (Nilsson) Svenson]


Eleocharis aestuum Hines ex A. Haines - . 2n = ?


Fresh, tidal river shores.


Eleocharis ambigens Fernald - . 2n = 44, 45, 46.


Coastal pond shores, marshes.


Eleocharis diandra C. Wright - . 2n = ?


River and lake silts, sometimes tidal.


Eleocharis elliptica Kunth - . 2n = 38.


Shores, meadows, and other wet places.  [E. tenuis (Willdenow) Schultes var. borealis (Svenson) Gleason]


Eleocharis engelmannii Steudel - . 2n = 10.


Pond shores, often in clay.


Eleocharis equisetoides (Elliott) Torrey Knotted Spikerush - . 2n = ?


Shores.


Eleocharis erythropoda Steudel - . 2n = 16, 18, 19, 20.


Shores in shallow water.  [E. calva misapplied]


Eleocharis fallax Weatherby - . 2n = 42.


Coastal, fresh to brackish pond and lake shores and marshes.


Eleocharis flavescens (Poiret) Urban var. olivacea (Torrey) Gleason Green Spikerush - . 2n = 20.


Bogs, marshes, shores.  [E. olivacea Torrey]


Eleocharis intermedia Schultes - . 2n = 22.


Shores and bogs in calcareous soil.


Eleocharis melanocarpa Torrey - . 2n = ?


Acid, sandy shores.


Eleocharis microcarpa Torrey var. filiculmis Torrey - . 2n = 10.


Pond shores.


Eleocharis nitida Fernald - . 2n = ?


Sphagnous places.


Eleocharis obtusa (Willdenow) Schultes - . 2n = (9), 10.


Wet, open places.  [E. obtusa var. ellipsoidalis Fernald ex Svenson; E. obtusa var. jejuna Fernald; E. obtusa var. peasei Svenson]


Eleocharis ovata (Roth) Roemer & Schultes - . 2n = 10.


Shores, bogs.  [E. ovata var. heuseri Uechtritz]


Eleocharis palustris (Linnaeus) Roemer & Schultes - . 2n = (10), (14), (15), 16, (17), (18), (27), (32), 36, (37), 38, (39), (40), (41), (42), (43), (50).


Shores, often in shallow water.  [E. palustris var. major Sonder; E. smallii Britton var. smallii; E. smallii Britton var. major (Sonder) Seymour]


Eleocharis parvula (Roemer & Schultes) Link ex Bluff, Nees & Scauer - . 2n = (8), 10.


Brackish or saline shores and marshes.


Eleocharis quadrangulata (Michaux) Roemer & Schultes - . 2n = ?


Lake and pond shores.  [E. quadrangulata var. crassior Fernald]


Eleocharis quinqueflora (Hartmann) O. Schwarz - . 2n = 20, 40, 46, 50, 80, ca. 100, 136.


Calcareous shores and swamps.  [E. pauciflora (Lightfoot) Link var. fernaldii Svenson]


Eleocharis robbinsii Oakes - . 2n = ?


Shallow water of lakes and ponds, usually in muddy soil.


Eleocharis rostellata (Torrey) Torrey - . 2n = ?


Salt marshes.


Eleocharis tenuis (Willdenow) Schultes var. tenuis - . 2n = 24.


Freshwater shores, swamps, bogs.


Eleocharis tenuis (Willdenow) Schultes var. pseudoptera (Weatherby) Svenson - . 2n = 20, 38, 39.


Rich woods and meadows.


Eleocharis tenuis (Willdenow) Schultes var. verrucosa (Svenson) Svenson - . 2n = 20.


Freshwater shores, often calcareous, wet woods.


Eleocharis tricostata Torrey - . 2n = ?


Pond shores and sphagnous depressions of the coastal plain.


Eleocharis tuberculosa (Michaux) Roemer & Schultes - . 2n = 30.


Pond and lake shores, bogs, swamps.


Eleocharis uniglumis (Link) Schultes Salt Marsh Spikerush - . 2n = (16), (38-43), (44), 46, (47-51), (54-56), (60-68), (71), (73-82), (85), (88-92).


Salt or brackish marshes.  [E. halophila (Fernald & Brackett) Fernald & Brackett]



ELEUSINE (Family: Poaceae)


ELEUSINE INDICA (Linnaeus) Gaertner - Wiregrass. 2n = 18, (20), (28), (36), (54).


Waste places, yards. From the Old World.



ELEUTHEROCOCCUS (Family: Araliaceae)


ELEUTHEROCOCCUS SIEBOLDIANUS (Makino) Koidzumi - . 2n = 48.


Roadsides, waste places, woodlands near waste places. From Japan. [E. PENTAPHYLLUS (Siebold & Zuccarini) Nakai; ACANTHOPANAX SIEBOLDIANUS Makino]



ELLISIA (Family: Hydrophyllaceae)


ELLISIA NYCTELEA (Linnaeus) Linnaeus - Water-pod. 2n = 20.


Fields. From farther west and south.



ELODEA (Family: Hydrocharitaceae)


Elodea canadensis Michaux - . 2n = 24, (32), (40), 48, (56), (64), (72), (96).


Ponds, lakes and quiet streams, mostly basic. [Anacharis canadensis (Michaux) Planchon]


Elodea nuttallii (Planchon) H. St. John - . 2n = 48.


Ponds, lakes and streams, acidic to moderately basic. [Anacharis nuttallii Planchon]



ELSHOLTZIA (Family: Lamiaceae)


ELSHOLTZIA CILIATA (Thunberg) Hylander - . 2n = 16, 18, (32).


Waste places, roadsides, railroads, fields. From Asia.



ELYMUS (Family: Poaceae)


Elymus canadensis Linnaeus var. canadensis - Canada Wild Rye. 2n = (14), 28.


Dry, sandy, gravelly, or rocky soil, railroads.


Elymus curvatus Piper - . 2n = 28.


Rich thickets, alluvium. [E. submuticus (Hooker) Smyth; E. virginicus Linnaeus var. submuticus Hooker]


Elymus glabriflorus (Vasey ex L.H. Dewey) Scribner & C.R. Ball var. glabriflorus - . 2n = 28.


Rich thickets and alluvium. [E. virginicus Linnaeus var. glabriflorus (Vasey ex L.H. Dewey) Bush]


Elymus glabriflorus (Vasey ex L.H. Dewey) Scribner & C.R. Ball var. australis (Scribner & C.R. Ball) J.J.N. Campbell - . 2n = ?


Dry, rocky woods. [E. virginicus var. australis (Scribner & C.R. Ball) Hitchcock]


Elymus hystrix Linnaeus - Bottlebrush-grass. 2n = 28.


Rich woods and thickets. [E. hystrix var. bigelovianus (Fernald) Bowden; Hystrix patula Moench var. patula; H. patula var. bigeloviana (Fernald) Deam]


ELYMUS REPENS (Linnaeus) Gould subsp. REPENS - Quackgrass. 2n = (21), (28), 42, (56), (63).


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia. [AGROPYRON REPENS (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois; A. REPENS var. SUBULATUM Roemer & Schultes; ELYTRIGIA REPENS (Linnaeus) Desvaux ex Nevski]


Elymus riparius Wiegand - . 2n = 28.


Moist woods, stream banks.


Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners subsp. trachycaulus - Slender Wheatgrass. 2n = 28, (56).


Open soils, woodland margins, in sphagnum, salt marsh margins, railroad ballast, roadsides, talus, rocky woods, dry ledges. [Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte ex H.F. Lewis var. trachycaulum; A. trachycaulum var. majus (Vasey) Fernald; A. trachycaulum var. novae-angliae (Scribner) Fernald]


Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners subsp. subsecundus (Link) Á. Löve & D. Löve - . 2n = 28, (56).


Woodlands, calcareous or granite ledges, lime cobble, roadsides, railroad ballast, sphagnous, swampy meadows. [Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte ex H.F. Lewis var. glaucum (Pease & Moore) Malte]


Elymus villosus Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. villosus - . 2n = 28.


Rich woods, thickets, shores.


Elymus virginicus Linnaeus var. virginicus - . 2n = 28.


Shores, rich thickets. [ E. virginicus var. intermedius (Vasey ex S. Watson & J.M. Coulter) Bush; E. virginicus var. jejunus (Ramaley) Bush]


Elymus virginicus Linnaeus var. halophilus (E.P. Bicknell) Wiegand - . 2n = ?


Seacoast.


Elymus wiegandii Fernald - . 2n = 28.


Alluvial soil, riverbanks, rich woods.



EMEX (Family: Polygonaceae)


EMEX SPINOSA (Linnaeus) Campderá - Devil's-thorn. 2n = 20.


Disturbed areas. From Mediterranean region.



EMPETRUM (Family: Ericaceae)


Empetrum atropurpureum Fernald & Wiegand - Purple Crowberry. 2n = 52.


Exposed mountain slopes near treeline. [E. eamesii Fernald & Wiegand subsp. atropurpureum (Fernald & Wiegand) D. Löve; E. rubrum Vahl ex Willdenow var. atropurpureum (Fernald & Wiegand) R.D. Good]


Empetrum nigrum Linnaeus var. nigrum - Black Crowberry. 2n = 26, (39), (52).


Alpine areas.



EPIFAGUS (Family: Orobanchaceae)


Epifagus virginiana (Linnaeus) W.P.C. Barton - Beechdrops. 2n = ?


Under beech trees, parasitic on their roots.



EPIGAEA (Family: Ericaceae)


Epigaea repens Linnaeus - Trailing Arbutus. 2n = 24.


Woods, clearings, in sandy, peaty or rocky soil. [E. repens var. glabrifolia Fernald]



EPILOBIUM (Family: Onagraceae)


Epilobium anagallidifolium Lamarck - . 2n = 36.


Alpine areas. [E. alpinum Linnaeus, rejected name, in part]


Epilobium ciliatum Rafinesque subsp. ciliatum - . 2n = 36.


Wet, open woodlands, damp thickets and fields, shores, marshes. [E. glandulosum Lehmann var. adenocaulon (Haussknecht) Fernald]


Epilobium ciliatum Rafinesque subsp. glandulosum (Lehmann) Hoch & P.H. Raven - . 2n = 36.


Damp thickets. [E. glandulosum Lehmann var. cardiophyllum Fernald; E. glandulosum var. occidentale (Trelease) Fernald]


Epilobium coloratum Biehler - Eastern Willow-herb. 2n = 36.


Swamps, boggy thickets, springy slopes, shores, marshes.


EPILOBIUM HIRSUTUM Linnaeus - . 2n = 36, (54).


Waste places, roadside thickets, meadows. From Eurasia, Africa.


Epilobium hornemannii Reichenbach subsp. hornemannii - . 2n = 36.


Margins of brooks, damp rocks, at high altitudes, often in wet moss.


Epilobium lactiflorum Haussknecht - . 2n = 36.


Alpine areas. [E. alpinum Linnaeus, rejected name, in part]


Epilobium leptophyllum Rafinesque - . 2n = 36.


Bogs, swamps, meadows, marshes.


Epilobium palustre Linnaeus - . 2n = (18), 36.


Bogs, swamps, meadows, swales. [E. palustre var. grammadophyllum Haussknecht; E. palustre var. labradoricum Haussknecht; E. palustre var. oliganthum (Michaux) Fernald]


Epilobium strictum Muhlenberg ex Sprengel - . 2n = 36.


Bogs, swamps, meadows, mossy thickets, marshes, shores.



EPIPACTIS (Family: Orchidaceae)


EPIPACTIS HELLEBORINE (Linnaeus) Crantz - Helleborine. 2n = (18), (20), (32), (36), (38), 40, (44), (80).


Woods, thickets, roadsides. From Europe.



EQUISETUM (Family: Equisetaceae)


Equisetum arvense Linnaeus - Field Horsetail. 2n = 216.


Open, low ground, roadsides, damp, open woods and thickets. [E. arvense var. boreale (Bongard) Ruprecht]


Equisetum fluviatile Linnaeus - Water Horsetail. 2n = 216.


Shores, shallow water of pond and river margins, swales.


Equisetum hyemale Linnaeus subsp. affine (Engelmann) Calder & Roy L. Taylor - Common Scouring Rush. 2n = 216.


Sandy banks and shores, alluvium, moist wooded slopes, roadsides. [E. hyemale var. affine (Engelmann) A.A. Eaton; E. hyemale var. pseudohyemale (Farwell) C.V. Morton]


Equisetum palustre Linnaeus - Marsh Horsetail. 2n = 216.


Shores, flooded meadows, swamps, and marshes.


Equisetum pratense Ehrhart - Meadow Horsetail. 2n = 216.


Rich slopes in humus-rich neutral soils, meadows, alluvial thickets.


Equisetum scirpoides Michaux - Dwarf Scouring Rush. 2n = 216.


Well-drained slopes, in cool woods, frequently under Tsuga, often growing in moss.


Equisetum sylvaticum Linnaeus - Wood Horsetail. 2n = 216.


Cool moist woods, swamps, around springs. [E. sylvaticum var. pauciramosum Milde]


Equisetum variegatum Schleicher ex F. Weber & D. Mohr - Variegated Horsetail. 2n = 216.


Riverbanks, shores, bog margins, moist gravel, and damp, calcareous sands.


Equisetum hybrids

Equisetum X ferrissii Clute (pro species).


[E. hyemale Linnaeus X E. laevigatum A. Braun; E. hyemale var. intermedium A.A. Eaton; E. hyemale var. elatum (Engelmann) C.V. Morton]


Equisetum X litorale Kühlewein ex Ruprecht (pro species) - Shore Horsetail.


[E. arvense Linnaeus X E. fluviatile Linnaeus]


Equisetum X mackaii (Newman) Brichan.


[E. hyemale Linnaeus X E. variegatum Schleicher ex F. Weber & D. Mohr; E. X trachyodon (A. Braun) W.D.J. Koch; E. variegatum Schleicher ex F. Weber & D. Mohr var. jesupii A.A. Eaton]



ERAGROSTIS (Family: Poaceae)


Eragrostis capillaris (Linnaeus) Nees - Lacegrass. 2n = 100.


Dry, sandy or rocky soil, roadsides.


ERAGROSTIS CILIANENSIS (Allioni) Vignolo-Lutati ex Janchen - Stinkgrass. 2n = 20, (40).


Waste land, cultivated fields, railroads. From Europe. [E. MEGASTACHYA (Koeler) Link]


ERAGROSTIS CURVULA (Schrader) Nees var. CURVULA - Weeping Lovegrass. 2n = (20), 40, (50), (54), (60), (70), (80).


Waste areas. From South Africa.


Eragrostis frankii (Fischer, C.A. Meyer & Avé-Lallemant) C.A. Meyer ex Steudel - . 2n = 40, 80.


Sandy riverbanks, roadsides.


Eragrostis hypnoides (Lamarck) Britton, Sterns & Poggenburg - Creeping Lovegrass. 2n = 20, 40.


Gravelly or sandy shores.


ERAGROSTIS INTERMEDIA Hitchcock var. INTERMEDIA - Plains Lovegrass. 2n = 60, 72, ca. 74, 76, 80, 100, ca. 108, 120.


Dry slopes. From farther south and west.


ERAGROSTIS MEXICANA (Hornemann) Link subsp. VIRESCENS (J. Presl) S.D. Koch & Sánchez Vega - . 2n = 60.


Ballast. From South America. [E. VIRESCENS J. Presl]


ERAGROSTIS MINOR Host - . 2n = (20), (30), 40, (44), (60), (80).


Roadsides, railroads, waste places. From Europe. [E. POAEOIDES P. Beauvois ex Roemer & Schultes]


Eragrostis pectinacea (Michaux) Nees var. pectinacea - . 2n = 60, (80).


Roadsides, railroads, waste places. [E. diffusa Buckley]


ERAGROSTIS PILOSA (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois var. PILOSA - India Lovegrass. 2n = (20), (30), (36), 40, (50), (60), (72).


Roadsides, railroads, barnyards, sandy places. From eastern Asia. [E. MULTICAULIS Steudel]


Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steudel - Purple Lovegrass. 2n = 20, 40, 42.


Coastal sands, dry sterile soil. [E. spectabilis var. sparsihirsuta Farwell]



ERECHTITES (Family: Asteraceae)


Erechtites hieraciifolius (Linnaeus) Rafinesque ex de Candolle var. hieraciifolius - Pilewort. 2n = 40.


Damp thickets, clearings (especially burned areas), waste places, shores. [E. hieraciifolius var. intermedius Fernald; E. hieraciifolius var. prealtus (Rafinesque) Fernald]


Erechtites hieraciifolius (Linnaeus) Rafinesque ex de Candolle var. megalocarpus (Fernald) Cronquist - Saltmarsh Pilewort. 2n = ?


Salt marshes, sandy, sea beaches. [E. megalocarpus Fernald]



ERICA (Family: Ericaceae)


ERICA CINEREA Linnaeus - Bell Heather. 2n = 24.


Moors, open woods, roadsides. From Europe.


ERICA TETRALIX Linnaeus - Cross-leaved Heath. 2n = 24.


Dry, sandy fields, peaty clearings, roadsides. From Europe.


ERICA VAGANS Linnaeus - Cornish Heath. 2n = 24.


Open, sandy, pine woods. From Europe.



ERIGERON (Family: Asteraceae)


Erigeron acris Linnaeus var. kamtschaticus (de Candolle) Herder - 2n = 18.


Damp banks, thickets, clearings, roadsides. [E. angulosus Gaudin var. kamtschaticus (de Candolle) H. Hara]


Erigeron annuus (Linnaeus) Persoon - Daisy Fleabane. 2n = (18), (26), 27, (28), (36), (54).


Roadsides, fields, waste places.


ERIGERON BONARIENSIS Linnaeus - Hairy Fleabane. 2n = (18), (26), (36), (32), 54.


Wool waste. Probably from South America. [CONYZA BONARIENSIS (Linnaeus) Cronquist]


Erigeron canadensis Linnaeus - Horseweed. 2n = (9), 18, (54).


Fields, roadsides, waste places. [E. pusillus Nuttall; Conyza canadensis (Linnaeus) Cronquist]


ERIGERON GLABELLUS Nuttall var. PUBESCENS Hooker - Streamside Fleabane. 2n = 18, 54.


Swamps. From farther west.


Erigeron hyssopifolius Michaux - 2n = 18.


Rocky ledges.


Erigeron philadelphicus Linnaeus var. philadelphicus - Common Fleabane. 2n = 18.


Open woods, wood margins, fields, rich thickets, roadsides.


Erigeron philadelphicus Linnaeus var. provancheri (Victorin & J. Rousseau) B. Boivin - 2n = 18.


Sandy crevices in shale receiving splashed water of river falls. [E. provancheri Victorin & J. Rousseau]


Erigeron pulchellus Michaux var. pulchellus - Robin's-plantain. 2n = (9), 18.


Fields, open woods, roadsides.


Erigeron strigosus Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. strigosus - Lesser Daisy Fleabane. 2n = 18, 27, 36, 54.


Dry, open soil, fields, roadsides. [E. strigosus var. beyrichii (Fischer & C.A. Meyer) Torrey & A. Gray; E. strigosus var. discoideus J.W. Robbins ex A. Gray]


Erigeron strigosus Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. septentrionalis (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald - 2n = 18, 27.


Dry, open soil, fields, roadsides.



ERIOCAULON (Family: Eriocaulaceae)


Eriocaulon aquaticum (Hill) Druce - White-buttons. 2n = 32, 64.


Acid shores, shallow water and bogs. [E. septangulare Withering]


Eriocaulon parkeri B.L. Robinson - . 2n = 20, ca. 48.


Tidal mud and estuaries.



ERIOPHORUM (Family: Cyperaceae)


Eriophorum angustifolium Honckeny subsp. angustifolium - . 2n = (18), (54), 58, (60), (72).


Sphagnum bogs, marshes.  [E. angustifolium var. majus Schultz; E. angustifolium subsp. subarcticum (V.N. Vassiljev) Hultén ex Kartesz & Gandhi; E. polystachion Linnaeus - rejected name]


Eriophorum gracile W.D.J. Koch - . 2n = 60, 76.


Meadows, bogs, swamps, usually in sphagnous soils.


Eriophorum tenellum Nuttall - . 2n = ?


Sphagnum bogs.


Eriophorum vaginatum Linnaeus Tussock Cotton-grass - . 2n = (26), 58, (60), (61), (83).


Sphagnum bogs.  [E. vaginatum subsp. spissum (Fernald) Hultén; E. spissum Fernald]


Eriophorum virginicum Linnaeus - Tawny Cotton-grass. 2n = 58.


Sphagnum bogs and sphagnous meadows.


Eriophorum viridicarinatum (Engelmann) Fernald - . 2n = 58.


Bogs and meadows, often in calcareous soil.



ERODIUM (Family: Geraniaceae)


ERODIUM BOTRYS (Cavanilles) Bertoloni - . 2n = 40, (60).


Wool waste. From Eurasia, northwestern Africa.


ERODIUM BRACHYCARPUM (Godron) Thellung - . 2n = 20, 40.


Wool waste. From southern Europe.


ERODIUM CICONIUM (Linnaeus) L’Héritier - . 2n = 18, 20.


Wool waste, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


ERODIUM CICUTARIUM (Linnaeus) L’Héritier subsp. CICUTARIUM - Alfilaria. 2n = (18), (20), (36), 40, (42), (54), (56).


Wool waste, waste places, fields, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


ERODIUM CYGNORUM Nees - Australian Stork’s-bill. 2n = 20, 40, 60.


Wool waste. From Australia.


ERODIUM MALACOIDES (Linnaeus) L’Héritier - . 2n = (20), 40.


Wool waste. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


ERODIUM MOSCHATUM (Linnaeus) L’Héritier - . 2n = 20.


Wool waste, waste places, railroads. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [E. MOSCHATUM var. PRAECOX Lange]


ERODIUM STEPHANIANUM Willdenow - . 2n = 16.


Wool waste. From Asia.



ERUCA (Family: Brassicaceae)


ERUCA VESICARIA (Linnaeus) Cavanilles subsp. SATIVA (Miller) Thellung - Arugula. 2n = (19), 22.


Waste places, roadsides, fields. From Europe, Africa. [E. SATIVA Miller]



ERUCASTRUM (Family: Brassicaceae)


ERUCASTRUM GALLICUM (Willdenow) O.E. Shulz - Dog Mustard. 2n = 30.


Waste places, roadsides, railroads, fields. From Europe.



ERYNGIUM (Family: Apiaceae)


ERYNGIUM AMETHYSTINUM Linnaeus - . 2n = 14, (16).


Waste places, fields. From eastern Mediterranean region.


ERYNGIUM PLANUM Linnaeus - Blue Eryngo. 2n = 16.


Fields, waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia.


ERYNGIUM YUCCIFOLIUM Michaux var. YUCCIFOLIUM - Rattlesnake-master. 2n = 96.


Sandy fields, other open, sandy ground. From farther south and west.



ERYSIMUM (Family: Brassicaceae)


ERYSIMUM CHEIRANTHOIDES Linnaeus - Wormseed Mustard. 2n = 16.


Waste places, roadsides, railroads, fields. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


ERYSIMUM HIERACIFOLIUM Linnaeus - European Wallflower. 2n = (16), 32, 48.


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia.


ERYSIMUM INCONSPICUUM (S. Watson) MacMillan - Small-flowered Prairie-rocket. 2n = 54, (81).


Railroad embankments, roadsides, dry, open soil. From farther west.


ERYSIMUM MARSCHALLIANUM Andrzejowski ex M. Bieberstein - . 2n = (14), 48.


Moist thickets. [E. DURUM J. Presl & C. Presl; Note: Dr. Ihsan Al-Shehbaz (pers. comm.) believes the Grand Isle Co., VT voucher to be E. VIRGATUM Roth]


ERYSIMUM ODORATUM Ehrhart - Pannonian Wallflower. 2n = 14, (16), (24), 32.


Wool waste. From Eurasia.


ERYSIMUM REPANDUM Linnaeus - Spreading Wallflower. 2n = (14), 16.


Waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



ERYTHRANTHE (Family: Phrymaceae)


ERYTHRANTHE GUTTATA (de Candolle) G.L. Nesom - . 2n = (16), 28, (32), (48), (56).


Wet ditches, springy places, riverbanks. From farther west. [MIMULUS GUTTATUS de Candolle]


ERYTHRANTHE MOSCHATA (Douglas ex Lindley) G.L. Nesom - Muskflower. 2n = 32.


Wet ditches, springy places, riverbanks. From farther north and west. [MIMULUS MOSCHATUS Douglas ex Lindley]



ERYTHRONIUM (Family: Liliaceae)


Erythronium americanum Ker Gawler subsp. americanum - Trout Lily. 2n = 24, 48.


Rich, moist woods and thickets.



ESCHSCHOLZIA (Family: Papaveraceae)


ESCHSCHOLZIA CALIFORNICA Chamisso subsp. CALIFORNICA - California Poppy. 2n = 12.


Dumps. From western United States and Mexico.



EUBOTRYS (Family: Ericaceae)


Eubotrys racemosa (Linnaeus) Nuttall - Swamp Sweetbells. 2n = 22.


Swamps, moist thickets, margins of bogs, ponds, and rivers. [Leucothoë racemosa (Linnaeus) A. Gray; L. racemosa var. projecta Fernald]



EUCLIDIUM (Family: Brassicaceae)


EUCLIDIUM SYRIACUM (Linnaeus) W.T. Aiton - . 2n = 14.


Waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia.



EUONYMUS (Family: Celastraceae)


EUONYMUS ALATUS (Thunberg) Siebold - Winged Euonymus. 2n = ca. 40, 64.


Roadsides, woodlands, streambanks, thickets, clearings. From eastern Asia.


EUONYMUS ATROPURPUREUS Jacquin var. ATROPURPUREUS - Wahoo. 2n = 32.


Roadsides, thickets, railroads, woodlands. From farther south and west.


EUONYMUS EUROPAEUS Linnaeus - European Spindle-tree. 2n = 32, 64.


Woodlands, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia.


EUONYMUS FORTUNEI (Turczaninow) Handel-Mazzetti var. FORTUNEI - Winter-creeper. 2n = 64.


Thickets, roadsides, woodland margins, waste places. From southern and eastern Asia.


EUONYMUS FORTUNEI (Turczaninow) Handel-Mazzetti var. RADICANS (Siebold ex Miquel) Rehder - Winter-creeper. 2n = 32.


Roadsides, railroads, open, rocky hillsides, woodlands. From eastern Asia.



EUPATORIUM (Family: Asteraceae)


Eupatorium album Linnaeus var. album - 2n = 20.


Dry, open, disturbed soil.


EUPATORIUM ALTISSIMUM Linnaeus - 2n = 20, 30, 40, 60, 80.


Roadsides, waste places. From farther west and south.


Eupatorium hyssopifolium Linnaeus var. hyssopifolium - Justice-weed. 2n = 20, 30, 40.


Dry, sandy fields, dry, open woods and clearings, roadsides. [E. hyssopifolium var. calcaratum Fernald & B.G. Schubert]


Eupatorium hyssopifolium Linnaeus var. laciniatum A. Gray - 2n = 30, 40.


Roadsides.


Eupatorium novae-angliae (Fernald) V.I. Sullivan ex A. Haines & Sorrie - . 2n = ?


Pond shores. [E. leucolepis (de Candolle) Torrey & A. Gray var. novae-angliae Fernald; This is thought to have originated from hybridization of E. PALUDICOLA E.E. Schilling & LeBlond and E. perfoliatum Linnaeus]


Eupatorium perfoliatum Linnaeus - Boneset. 2n = 20.


Low woods, shores, swamps. [E. perfoliatum var. colpophilum Fernald & Griscom]


Eupatorium pilosum Walter - 2n = 20, 30, 40.


Low woods, shores, swamps, moist, low ground. [E. rotundifolium Linnaeus var. saundersii (Porter ex Britton) Cronquist]


Eupatorium rotundifolium Linnaeus var. rotundifolium - Round-leaved Thoroughwort. 2n = 20, 30, 40.


Open woods, clearings.


Eupatorium rotundifolium Linnaeus var. ovatum (Bigelow) Torrey ex de Candolle - Round-leaved Thoroughwort. 2n = 20, 30, 40.


Dry, open woods, clearings, roadsides. [E. pubescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow]


EUPATORIUM SEROTINUM Michaux - 2n = 20.


Roadsides, railroad yard, fields. From farther west and south.


Eupatorium sessilifolium Linnaeus - Upland Boneset. 2n = 20, 30, (60).


Rocky, open woods. [E. sessilifolium var. brittonianum Porter]



EUPHORBIA (Family: Euphorbiaceae)


EUPHORBIA COROLLATA Linnaeus - Flowering Spurge. 2n = 28.


Fields, dry, open woodlands, roadsides. From farther south and west.


EUPHORBIA CYPARISSIAS Linnaeus - Cypress Spurge. 2n = 20, (36), 40, (50).


Roadsides, waste places, old fields, cemeteries. From Eurasia.


EUPHORBIA DAVIDII Subils - . 2n = 56.


Railroads. From farther west. [E. DENTATA misapplied]


EUPHORBIA DENTATA Michaux - . 2n = (14), 28, 56.


Waste places, roadsides, railroads, sandy beaches, cemeteries. From farther south and west. [Note: Many or all of the New England records under this name are likely to be EUPHORBIA DAVIDII as they have not yet been reviewed for this common error.]


EUPHORBIA DULCIS Linnaeus - Sweet Spurge. 2n = 12, 18, 24, (28), (48).


Thicket in oak woodlands. From Europe.


Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelmann - . 2n = 22.


Roadsides, railroads, dry, open soil.


EUPHORBIA HELIOSCOPIA Linnaeus - Wartweed. 2n = 42.


Roadsides, waste places, fields, dry, open soil. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


Euphorbia ipecacuanhae Linnaeus - Wild Ipecac. 2n = 28.


Open, sandy soil.


EUPHORBIA LATHYRIS Linnaeus - Caper Spurge. 2n = 20.


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Mediterranean Europe.


Euphorbia maculata Linnaeus - Milk-purslane. 2n = 12, 14, 28, 40, 42, 56.


Railroads, waste places, roadsides, dry, open soil. [E. supina Rafinesque]


EUPHORBIA MARGINATA Pursh - Snow-on-the-mountain. 2n = (54), 56.


Waste places. From farther west.


EUPHORBIA MESEMBRYANTHEMIFOLIA Jacquin - . 2n = ?


Woodlands. From Florida, Caribbean region.


Euphorbia nutans Lagasca - Eyebane. 2n = 12, (14), (40).


Waste places, railroads, roadsides, fields, dry, open soil. [E. maculata misapplied]


EUPHORBIA PEPLUS Linnaeus - Petty Spurge. 2n = 16, (22), (24), (32).


Waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


EUPHORBIA PLATYPHYLLOS Linnaeus - . 2n = (14), 28, 30, (36).


Waste places, meadows, lake shores. From the Mediterranean region.


Euphorbia polygonifolia Linnaeus - Seaside Spurge. 2n = 26.


Sand dunes, sea beaches.


EUPHORBIA PROSTRATA Aiton - . 2n = (12), 18, (20).


Cotton waste. From farther west and south, Mexico, Central and South America, Caribbean region.


Euphorbia vermiculata Rafinesque - . 2n = 16.


Railroads, roadsides, waste places, fields, dry, sandy soil.


EUPHORBIA VIRGATA Waldstein & Kitaibel - Wolf’s-milk. 2n = (16), 20, (48), (50), (52), 60, (64).


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia. [E. ESULA misapplied]


Euphorbia hybrid

EUPHORBIA X PSEUDOESULA Schur (pro species).


[E. CYPARISSIAS Linnaeus X E. VIRGATA Waldstein & Kitaibel]



EUPHRASIA (Family: Orobanchaceae)


Euphrasia disjuncta Fernald & Wiegand - . 2n = 44.


Streambanks, damp open soil.


EUPHRASIA MICRANTHA Reichenbach - . 2n = 44.


Rocky summits. From Europe.


EUPHRASIA NEMOROSA (Persoon) Wallroth - . 2n = 44.


Fields, roadsides, woodland margins, grassy slopes, clearings, ledges, sea bluffs. From Europe. [E. AMERICANA Wettstein; E. CANADENSIS misapplied; E. OFFICINALIS misapplied (in part); E. TETRAQUETRA misapplied]


Euphrasia oakesii Wettstein - . 2n = 44.


Wet crevices in alpine areas. [E. williamsii B.L. Robinson]


Euphrasia randii B.L. Robinson - . 2n = ?


Mossy banks above seashore, fields, seaside ledges, rocky turf near the sea. [E. randii var. farlowii B.L. Robinson; E. randii var. reeksii Fernald]


EUPHRASIA STRICTA J.P. Wollf ex J.F. Lehmann - . 2n = (22), 44.


Fields, roadsides, clearings. From Europe. [E. RIGIDULA Jordan; E. OFFICINALIS misapplied (in part)]


EUPHRASIA TETRAQUETRA (Brébisson) Arrondeau - . 2n = 44.


Fields. [E. CANADENSIS F. Townsend]



EURYBIA (Family: Asteraceae)


Eurybia divaricata (Linnaeus) G.L. Nesom - White Wood Aster. 2n = 18, (20).


Rich, deciduous woods, clearings, roadsides. [Aster divaricatus Linnaeus]


Eurybia macrophylla (Linnaeus) Cassini - 2n = (36), 72.


Open woods, thickets, clearings, roadsides. [Aster macrophyllus Linnaeus var. macrophyllus; A. macrophyllus var. apricensis E.S. Burgess; A. macrophyllus var. excelsior E.S. Burgess; A. macrophyllus var. ianthinus (E.S. Burgess) Fernald; A. macrophyllus var. pinguifolius E.S. Burgess; A. macrophyllus var. sejunctus E.S. Burgess; A. macrophyllus var. velutinus E.S. Burgess]


Eurybia radula (Aiton) G.L. Nesom - 2n = 18, (27).


Sphagnum bogs, boggy shores, swamps, low woods. [Aster radula Aiton var. radula; A. radula var. strictus A. Gray]


Eurybia schreberi (Nees) Nees - 2n = (18), 54.


Rich, deciduous or mixed woods, thickets. [Aster glomeratus Bernhardi ex Nees - invalid name; A. macrophyllus Linnaeus var. schreberi (Nees) F. Seymour; A. schreberi Nees]


Eurybia spectabilis (Aiton) G.L. Nesom - Seaside Purple Aster. 2n = 72.


Dry, sandy, open woods and clearings, roadsides. [Aster spectabilis Aiton]


Eurybia hybrid

Eurybia X herveyi (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom - .


[E. macrophylla (Linnaeus) Cassini X E. spectabilis (Aiton) G.L. Nesom; Aster herveyi A. Gray]



EUTHAMIA (Family: Asteraceae)


Euthamia caroliniana (Linnaeus) Greene ex Porter & Britton - Quobsque-weed. 2n = 18.


Sandy shores, open, sandy soils. [E. microcephala Greene; Solidago microcephala (Greene) Bush; S. tenuifolia Pursh var. tenuifolia; S. tenuifolia var. pycnocephala Fernald]


Euthamia graminifolia (Linnaeus) Nuttall - Common Flat-topped Goldenrod. 2n = 18, (54).


Shores, beaches, salt marsh borders, fields. [Solidago graminifolia (Linnaeus) Salisbury var. graminifolia; S. graminifolia var. nuttallii (Greene) Fernald; S. graminifolia var. polycephala (Fernald) Fernald]



EUTROCHIUM (Family: Asteraceae)


Eutrochium dubium (Willdenow ex Poiret) E.E. Lamont - Eastern Joe-pye-weed. 2n = 20.


Meadows, shores, low, moist, acid soil. [Eupatorium dubium Willdenow ex Poiret]


Eutrochium fistulosum (Barratt) E.E. Lamont - Trumpetweed. 2n = 20.


Moist thickets, meadows, alluvial woods. [Eupatorium fistulosum Barratt]


Eutrochium maculatum (Linnaeus) E.E. Lamont var. maculatum - 2n = 20.


Moist thickets, meadows, shores, usually in rich or calcareous soil. [Eupatorium maculatum Linnaeus var. maculatum]


Eutrochium maculatum (Linnaeus) E.E. Lamont var. foliosum (Fernald) E.E. Lamont - 2n = 20.


Moist thickets, meadows, shores, usually in rich or calcareous soil. [Eupatorium maculatum Linnaeus var. foliosum (Fernald) Wiegand]


Eutrochium purpureum (Linnaeus) E.E. Lamont var. purpureum - Sweet Joe-pye-weed. 2n = 20.


Rich, deciduous, chiefly calcareous woods. [Eupatorium purpureum Linnaeus var. purpureum]



EXOCHORDA (Family: Rosaceae)


EXOCHORDA RACEMOSA (Lindley) Rehder - Common Pearlbush. 2n = 16, (18).


Roadsides, thickets. From Asia.





Designed by Ray Angelo. Revised Jan. 24, 2017