Atlas of the Flora of New England

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Genera - C

Cabomba
Cacalia (see Senecio)
Cakile
Calamagrostis
Calandrinia
Calendula
Calla
Callistephus
Callitriche
Calluna
Calopogon
Calotis
Caltha
Calycanthus
Calylophus (see Oenothera)
Calypso
Calystegia
Camelina
Camissonia
Camissoniopsis
Campanula
Campsis
Camptosorus (see Asplenium)
Cannabis
Capnoides
Capsella
Capsicum
Caragana
Cardamine
Cardaria (see Lepidium)
Cardiospermum
Carduus
Carex
Carpinus
Carthamus
Carum
Carya
Cassandra (see Chamaedaphne)
Cassia (see Chamaecrista and Senna)
Cassiope (see Harrimanella)
Castanea
Castilleja
Catalpa
Catapodium
Caulophyllum
Ceanothus
Celastrus
Celosia
Celtis
Cenchrus
Centaurea
Centaurium (see also Schenkia)
Centunculus (see Lysimachia)
Cephalanthus
Cephalaria
Cerastium
Ceratophyllum
Cercidiphyllum
Cercis
Chaenactis
Chaenomeles
Chaenorhinum
Chamaecrista
Chamaecyparis
Chamaedaphne
Chamaelirium
Chamaemelum
Chamaenerion
Chamaesaracha (see Leucophysalis)
Chamerion (see Chamaenerion)
Chasmanthium
Cheilanthes (see Myriopteris)
Chelidonium
Chelone
Chenopodiastrum
Chenopodium
 (see also Blitum, Chenopodiastrum, Dysphania, Lipandra and Oxybasis)
Chimaphila
Chiogenes (see Gaultheria)
Chionanthus
Chloris
Chorispora
Chorizanthe
Chrysanthemum (see Glebionis, Leucanthemella, Leucanthemum, Nipponanthemum and Tanacetum)
Chrysopsis (see also Pityopsis)
Chrysosplenium
Cicer
Cichorium
Cicuta
Cimicifuga (see Actaea)
Cinna
Circaea
Cirsium
Citrullus
Cladium
Cladrastis
Clarkia
Claytonia
Clematis
Cleome (see Peritoma and Tarenaya)
Clethra
Clinopodium
Clintonia
Cnicus (see Centaurea)
Coeloglossum (see Dactylorhiza)
Coelopleurum (see Angelica)
Colchicum
Coleataenia
Collinsia
Collinsonia
Collomia
Colutea
Comandra
Comarum
Commelina
Comptonia
Conioselinum
Conium
Conopholis
Conringia
Consolida
Convallaria
Convolvulus (see also Calystegia)
Conyza (see Erigeron)
Coptidium
Coptis
Corallorhiza
Corema
Coreopsis
Coriandrum
Cornus
Coronilla (see also Securigera)
Coronopus (see Lepidium)
Corydalis (see also Capnoides)
Corylus
Corynephorus
Cosmos
Cota
Cotinus
Cotoneaster
Cotula
Crassula (see Tillaea)
Crataegus
Crepidomanes
Crepis
Crocanthemum
Crocus
Crotalaria
Croton
Crotonopsis (see Croton)
Crupina
Crypsis
Cryptantha
Cryptogramma
Cryptotaenia
Cucumis
Cucurbita
Cuphea
Cuscuta
Cyclachaena
Cycloloma
Cydonia (see also Chaenomeles)
Cymbalaria
Cynanchum (see Vincetoxicum)
Cynodon
Cynoglossum
Cynoglottis
Cynosurus
Cyperus (see also Kyllinga)
Cypripedium
Cystopteris
Cytisus


CABOMBA (Family: Cabombaceae)


CABOMBA CAROLINIANA A. Gray - Fanwort. 2n = 24, (34), (ca. 96), (104).


Ponds, lakes, slow streams. From farther south and west.



CAKILE (Family: Brassicaceae)


Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hooker subsp. edentula - American Sea-rocket. 2n = 18, (36).


Sandy sea beaches.



CALAMAGOSTIS (Family: Poaceae)


Calamagrostis canadensis (Michaux) P. Beauvois var. canadensis - Bluejoint. 2n = (28), 42, (49), (56).


Meadows, shores, bogs, open swamps. [C. canadensis var. robusta Vasey]


Calamagrostis canadensis (Michaux) P. Beauvois var. langsdorfii (Link) Inman - . 2n = 28, 42, (50-52), 56, (59-91).


High altitudes. [C. canadensis var. scabra (J. Presl) Hitchcock; C. nubila Louis-Marie]


Calamagrostis canadensis (Michaux) P. Beauvois var. macouniana (Vasey) Stebbins - . 2n = ?


Open, moist, grassy areas.


Calamagrostis coarctata Eaton - . 2n = ?


Swamps, wet woods, damp sandy or peaty soils. [C. cinnoides misapplied]


CALAMAGROSTIS EPIGEJOS (Linnaeus) Roth subsp. GLOMERATA (Boissier & Buhse) Tzvelev - . 2n = 28.


Fields, waste places. From Eurasia. [C. EPIGEJOS var. GEORGICA (K. Koch) Grisebach]


Calamagrostis pickeringii A. Gray - . 2n = 28.


Bogs, peaty alpine soils, shores, riverbanks. [C. pickeringii var. debilis (Kearney) Fernald & Wiegand]


Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler subsp. stricta - . 2n = 28, (42), (84).


Gravelly shores, riverbanks. [C. neglecta (Ehrhart) P.G. Gaertner, B. Meyer & Scherbius -- illegitimate name]


Calamagrostis stricta (Timm) Koeler subsp. inexpansa (A. Gray) C.W. Greene
- Northern Reedgrass. 2n = 28, 56, 58, 70, 84, ca. 100, c.104, 114, 116, 119, 120, 123, 140.


Wet ledges, ridgetop soils, gravelly shores, riverbanks, usually at high altitudes. [C. fernaldii Louis-Marie; C. inexpansa A. Gray var. inexpansa; C. inexpansa var. brevior (Vasey) Stebbins; C. inexpansa var. novae-angliae Stebbins; C. inexpansa var. robusta (Vasey) Stebbins; C. lacustris (Kearney) Nash]



CALANDRINIA (Family: Montiaceae)


CALANDRINIA CILIATA (Ruiz & Pavón) de Candolle - Red Maids. 2n = 24, 46, 48.


Fields. From farther west.



CALENDULA (Family: Asteraceae)


CALENDULA OFFICINALIS Linnaeus - Pot Marigold. 2n = (14), (28), 32.


Waste places. Probably from the Mediterranean region.



CALLA (Family: Araceae)


Calla palustris Linnaeus - Wild Calla. 2n = 36, (60), 72.


Bogs, marshes, swampy woods, pond margins, shallow water.



CALLISTEPHUS (Family: Asteraceae)


CALLISTEPHUS CHINENSIS (Linnaeus) Nees - China Aster. 2n = 18, (36).


Fields, sandy, pond shores. From eastern Asia.



CALLITRICHE (Family: Plantaginaceae)


Callitriche hermaphroditica Linnaeus - . 2n = 6.


Lakes, ponds, often calcareous.


Callitriche heterophylla Pursh var. heterophylla - . 2n = (10), 20.


Ponds, pools, lakes, quiet water of streams, intertidal mudflats. [C. anceps Fernald]


Callitriche palustris Linnaeus - . 2n = (10), (16), 20, (40).


Ponds, pools, lakes, quiet water of streams, springs. [C. verna Linnaeus]


CALLITRICHE STAGNALIS Scopoli - Common Water-starwort. 2n = 10, (18), (20).


Streams, pools, ponds, lakes, springs. From Eurasia, northwestern Africa.


Callitriche terrestris Rafinesque - . 2n = 10.


Woodland roads, paths and margins, in damp, shady soil. [C. deflexa A. Braun ex Hegelmaier var. austini (Engelmann ex A. Gray) Hegelmaier]



CALLUNA (Family: Ericaceae)


CALLUNA VULGARIS (Linnaeus) Hull - Heather. 2n = 16.


Dry fields, roadsides, damp, sandy sites. From Eurasia.



CALOPOGON (Family: Orchidaceae)


Calopogon tuberosus (Linnaeus) Britton, Sterns & Poggenberg var. tuberosus - Grass-pink. 2n = 26, 32, 38, 40, 42.


Sphagnous bogs, swamps, and meadows. [C. pulchellus R. Brown - illegitimate name]



CALOTIS (Family: Asteraceae)


CALOTIS CUNEIFOLIA R. Brown - Purple Burr-daisy. 2n = 16, (20), (32).


Wool waste. From Australia.



CALTHA (Family: Ranunculaceae)


Caltha palustris Linnaeus - Marsh Marigold. 2n = (16), 32, (34), (38), (44), (48), (50), 56, (58), (60), (62), (64), (72).


Swamps, wet meadows, brooksides, wet woods, marshes.



CALYCANTHUS (Family: Calycanthaceae)


CALYCANTHUS FLORIDUS Linnaeus var. FLORIDUS - Carolina Allspice. 2n = 22, 24, 33.


Along streams, woods. From farther south.


CALYCANTHUS FLORIDUS Linnaeus var. GLAUCUS (Willdenow) Torrey & A. Gray - Carolina Allspice. 2n = 22, (24).


Thickets. From farther south. [C. FERTILIS Walter]



CALYPSO (Family: Orchidaceae)


Calypso bulbosa (Linnaeus) Oakes var. americana (R. Brown) Luer - Calypso. 2n = 32.


Thuja swamps.



CALYSTEGIA (Family: Convolvulaceae)


CALYSTEGIA PUBESCENS Lindley - . 2n = 22.


Waste places, fields, roadsides, riverbanks. From eastern Asia. [C. hederacea misapplied; Convolvulus japonicus misapplied; C. pellitus misapplied]


CALYSTEGIA SEPIUM (Linnaeus) R. Brown subsp. SEPIUM - . 2n = 22, (24).


Waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [CONVOLVULUS SEPIUM Linnaeus var. SEPIUM] Note: The draft of the Flora of North America treatment of Calystegia asserts that this taxon is a rare introduction and has not been found in New England, implying that most or all of the records under this name in New England herbaria are misidentifications.


Calystegia sepium (Linnaeus) R. Brown subsp. americana (Sims) Brummitt - Wild Morning-glory. 2n = 22.


Coastal and subcoastal rocky shores, salt marshes, grassy banks, waste areas. [Convolvulus sepium Linnaeus var. americanus Sims; C. sepium var. pubescens sensu Gray’s Manual 7th edition]


Calystegia sepium (Linnaeus) R. Brown subsp. angulata Brummitt - . 2n = ?


Riverbanks, roadsides, waste places. [Convolvulus sepium Linnaeus var. repens misapplied]


Calystegia sepium (Linnaeus) R. Brown subsp. appalachiana Brummitt - . 2n = ?


Roadsides, waste places, usually in upland areas.


Calystegia silvatica (Kitaibel) Grisebach subsp. fraterniflora (Mackenzie & Bush) Brummitt - Twinflowered Morning-glory. 2n = ?


Grassy banks, fields, thickets, roadsides, waste places. [Convolvulus sepium (Linnaeus) R. Brown var. fraterniflorus Mackenzie & Bush]


Calystegia spithamaea (Linnaeus) Pursh subsp. spithamaea - Upright Bindweed. 2n = 22.


Sandy or rocky, open soil, thin woods, roadsides. [Convolvulus spithamaeus Linnaeus]



CAMELINA (Family: Brassicaceae)


CAMELINA MICROCARPA Andrzejowski ex de Candolle - . 2n = (16), (18-20), (24), 26, (32), (38), 40.


Fields, roadsides, railroads. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


CAMELINA SATIVA (Linnaeus) Crantz - Gold-of-pleasure. 2n = (12), (16), (26), (28), (36), 40.


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia.



CAMISSONIA (Family: Onagraceae)


CAMISSONIA CAMPESTRIS (Greene) P.H. Raven subsp. CAMPESTRIS - Mojave Suncup. 2n = 14.


Wool waste. From southwestern United States.



CAMISSONIOPSIS (Family: Onagraceae)


CAMISSONIOPSIS BISTORTA (Nuttall ex Torrey & A. Gray) W.L. Wagner & Hoch - California Suncup. 2n = 14.


Wool waste. From southern California.




CAMPANULA (Family: Campanulaceae)


Campanula aparinoides Pursh - Marsh Bellflower. 2n = 34.


Swamps, shores, meadows. [C. aparinoides var. grandiflora Holzinger; C. uliginosa Rydberg]


CAMPANULA CARPATICA Jacquin - Tussock Bellflower. 2n = 34.


Fields. From eastern Europe.


CAMPANULA DIVARICATA Michaux - Southern Harebell. 2n = 34.


Railroad ballast. From farther south.


CAMPANULA GLOMERATA Linnaeus - Dane’s-blood. 2n = 30, (34), (68), (90).


Fields, roadsides. From Eurasia.


CAMPANULA LATIFOLIA Linnaeus - Giant Bellflower. 2n = 34, (68).


Roadsides, waste areas. From Eurasia.


CAMPANULA MEDIUM Linnaeus - Canterbury-bells. 2n = (32), 34.


Waste places. From southern Europe.


CAMPANULA PATULA Linnaeus - . 2n = (18), 20, 40, (60), (80).


Waste places, fields, roadsides, riverbanks. From eastern Asia.


CAMPANULA PERSICIFOLIA Linnaeus - . 2n = 16, (32).


Wooded banks, cedar groves on high bluffs, shady ditches, wet meadows, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia. [C. PERSICIFOLIA var. ALBA Hortulanorum]


CAMPANULA PUNCTATA Lamarck - . 2n = 34.


Roadsides. From eastern Asia.


CAMPANULA RAPUNCULOIDES Linnaeus - Creeping Bellflower. 2n = 68, 102.


Roadsides, thickets, waste places. From Eurasia. [C. RAPUNCULOIDES var. UCRANICA (Besser) K. Koch]


Campanula rotundifolia Linnaeus - Harebell. 2n = 34, (51), 68, (102).


Ledges, rocky slopes, gravelly or rocky shores, meadows, fields, often in calcareous soil.


CAMPANULA TRACHELIUM Linnaeus - Bats-in-the-belfry. 2n = 34, (51), (58).


Waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CAMPSIS (Family: Bignoniaceae)


CAMPSIS RADICANS (Linnaeus) Bureau - Trumpet-creeper. 2n = (32), 40.


Fields, woods, thickets, waste places, roadsides, railroad right-of-ways. From farther south and west.

Campsis hybrid

CAMPSIS X TAGLIABUANA (Visiani) Rehder - .


[C. GRANDIFLORA (Thunberg) K. Schumann X C. RADICANS (Linnaeus) Bureau]



CANNABIS (Family: Cannabaceae)


CANNABIS SATIVA Linnaeus - Marijuana. 2n = (18), 20, (40), (80).


Waste places, roadsides. From Asia.



CAPNOIDES (Family: Papaveraceae)


Capnoides sempervirens (Linnaeus) Borkhausen - Pale Corydalis. 2n = 16, (32).


Ledges, dry, rocky woods, recent clearings, frequently around old campfire sites. [Corydalis sempervirens (Linnaeus) Persoon]



CAPSELLA (Family: Brassicaceae)


CAPSELLA BURSA-PASTORIS (Linnaeus) Medikus - Shepherd’s-purse. 2n = (12), (16), 32, (40).


Roadsides, fields, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [C. BURSA-PASTORIS var. BIFIDA Crépin; C. RUBELLA Reuter]



CAPSICUM (Family: Solanaceae)


CAPSICUM ANNUUM Linnaeus var. GLABRIUSCULUM (Dunal) Heiser & Pickersgill - Bird Pepper. 2n = ?


Waste places, railroads. From farther south and west, Mexico, Central America, Caribbean, South America.



CARAGANA (Family: Fabaceae)


CARAGANA ARBORESCENS Lamarck - Siberian Peatree. 2n = 16, (20), (24).


Rich thickets, fields, roadsides, waste places. From central and eastern Asia.



CARDAMINE (Family: Brassicaceae)


Cardamine bellidifolia Linnaeus - Alpine Cress. 2n = 16, (32).


Alpine brooks, wet, mossy rocks at high altitudes.


Cardamine bulbosa (Schreber ex Muhlenberg) Britton, Sterns & Poggenburg - Spring Cress. 2n = 16, 32, 48, 56, 64, 80, 96, 112.


About springs, wet woods, meadows. [C. rhomboidea (Persoon) de Candolle]


Cardamine concatenata (Michaux) O. Schwarz - Pepper-root. 2n = 128, 240, 256.


Rich, moist woods, calcareous rocky banks. [Dentaria laciniata Muhlenberg ex Willdenow]


Cardamine dentata Schultes - . 2n = 56, 64, ca. 72, 80, 84, 88.


Margins of shallow water, often calcareous, swampy woods. [C. pratensis Linnaeus var. palustris Wimmer & Grabowski; see Marhold 1994, also Marhold (pers. comm.)]


Cardamine diphylla (Michaux) Alph. Wood - Crinkleroot. 2n = 96.


Rich, moist woods. [Dentaria diphylla Michaux]


Cardamine douglassii Britton - Purple Cress. 2n = 56, 60, 64, 96, 112 144.


Rich, moist woods.


CARDAMINE FLEXUOSA Withering - Woodland Bitter-cress. 2n = (30), 32.


Fields, roadsides, disturbed areas. From Eurasia.


CARDAMINE HIRSUTA Linnaeus - Hairy Bitter-cress. 2n = (14), 16, (32), (64).


Roadsides, fields, waste places. From Eurasia.


CARDAMINE IMPATIENS Linnaeus - Narrow-leaved Bitter-cress. 2n = 16, (32).


Shaded grasslands, roadsides, disturbed areas, open woods. From Eurasia.


Cardamine longii Fernald - . 2n = ?


Tidal estuaries, tidal marshes.


Cardamine maxima (Nuttall) Alph. Wood - Large Toothwort. 2n = 120, 124, 132, 138, 156, 161, 208.


Rich woods, woodland streambanks. [C. anomala (Eames) K. Schumann; Dentaria anomala Eames; D. maxima Nuttall]


Cardamine parviflora Linnaeus - Sand Bitter-cress. 2n = 16.


Dry, rocky or sandy woods, ledges. [C. parviflora var. arenicola (Britton) O.E. Schulz]


Cardamine pensylvanica Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - Common Bitter-cress. 2n = 32, (64).


Springs, brooksides, pond shores, swamps. [C. pensylvanica var. brittoniana Farwell]


Cardamine pratensis Linnaeus - Cuckooflower. 2n = 16, 28, 30, 32, 34, 38, 40, 44, 46, 48, 56, 60, 88, 90.


Meadows, moist grounds.

Cardamine hybrid

Cardamine X incisa K. Schumann (pro species) - .


[C. concatenata (Michaux) O. Schwarz X C. maxima (Nuttall) Alph. Wood; Dentaria X incisifolia Eames ex Britton]



CARDIOSPERMUM (Family: Sapindaceae)


CARDIOSPERMUM HALICACABUM Linnaeus var. HALICACABUM - Balloon-vine. 2n = 22.


Waste places. From South America, Africa.



CARDUUS (Family: Asteraceae)


CARDUUS ACANTHOIDES Linnaeus subsp. ACANTHOIDES - Plumeless Thistle. 2n = (16), (20), 22.


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia.


CARDUUS CRISPUS Linnaeus - Welted Thistle. 2n = (6), 16, (18), (22).


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia.


CARDUUS NUTANS Linnaeus - Musk Thistle. 2n = 16, (40).


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia.



CAREX (Family: Cyperaceae)


Carex abscondita Mackenzie - . 2n = 48.


Rich, moist, deciduous or deciduous-evergreen woods.


CAREX ACUTIFORMIS Ehrhart - . 2n = 38, 78.


Open swamps and wet thickets, borders of saline marshes, boggy meadows, lake shores. From Europe.


Carex adusta Boott - . 2n = 64, 78.


Dry, open, sandy woods and clearings, in acid soil.


Carex aestivalis M.A. Curtis ex A. Gray - Summer Sedge. 2n = 56.


Wooded or rocky slopes.


Carex aggregata Mackenzie - . 2n = 52.


Meadows, thickets, rich woods, usually on calcareous soil. [C. sparganioides Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. aggregata (Mackenzie) Gleason]


Carex alata Torrey - . 2n = 74.


Marshes, low woods, peaty shores, wet thickets.


Carex albicans Willdenow ex Sprengel var. albicans - . 2n = 36.


Dry, usually acidic woods and clearings. [C. artitecta Mackenzie var. artitecta; C. artitecta var. subtilirostris F.J. Hermann; C. nigromarginata Schweinitz var. muhlenbergii (A. Gray ex Torrey) Gleason]


Carex albicans Willdenow ex Sprengel var. emmonsii (Dewey ex Torrey) Rettig - . 2n = 40.


Woods, usually deciduous, clearings.  [C. emmonsii Dewey ex Torrey]


Carex albolutescens Schweinitz - . 2n = 64, 66.


Acidic swamps, wet woods, thickets.


Carex albursina E. Sheldon - . 2n = 44.


Moist, calcareous, deciduous woods and ravines. [C. laxiflora Lamarck var. latifolia Boott]


Carex alopecoidea Tuckerman - . 2n = (50), 68.


Calcareous meadows, swales, alluvial woods, low thickets.


Carex amphibola Steudel - . 2n = ?


Moist, deciduous woods.


Carex annectens (E.P. Bicknell) E.P. Bicknell - . 2n = 50, 52.


Sterile, often sandy soils, dry or moist. [C. annectens var. xanthocarpa (Kükenthal) Wiegand; C. brachyglossa Mackenzie]


Carex appalachica J.M. Webber & P.W. Ball - . 2n = 52.


Deciduous or mixed woods, usually on sandy or rocky soils. [C. radiata misapplied]


Carex aquatilis Wahlenberg var. aquatilis - . 2n = (72), (74), (75), 76, (78), (79), (80), (84), (148).


Calcareous marshes, bogs, meadows and shores. [C. aquatilis var. altior misapplied]


Carex aquatilis Wahlenberg var. substricta Kükenthal - . 2n = 76, 77.


Neutral or calcareous marshes and shores.


Carex arcta Boott - . 2n = (52), (54), 60.


Wet woods, alluvial thickets, shores and meadows.


Carex arctata Boott - .  2n = 52, 54, 56.


Woods.


Carex argyrantha Tuckerman ex Dewey - . 2n = 64, 80.


Dry, open woods on acidic, rocky or sandy soils.


Carex atherodes Sprengel - . 2n = 74, 78.


Calcareous meadows, wet, open thickets, shores.


Carex atlantica L.H. Bailey subsp. atlantica - . 2n = 44, 54.


Bogs and other sphagnous soils. [C. incomperta E.P. Bicknell]


Carex atlantica L.H. Bailey subsp. capillacea (L.H. Bailey) Reznicek - . 2n = ?


Bogs, wet, acidic soils. [C. howei Mackenzie]


Carex atratiformis Britton - . 2n = 54.


Ravines, damp slopes, shores, often calcareous or circumneutral.


Carex aurea Nuttall - . 2n = 52.


Meadows, springy banks, shores, usually on basic soil.


Carex backii Boott - . 2n = 66.


Dry, rocky or sandy woods and bluffs.


Carex baileyi Britton - . 2n = ?


Shores, swampy woods, meadows, usually in acidic soils.


Carex barrattii Schweinitz & Torrey - . 2n = ?


Bogs, swamps, wet woods, usually in acidic soils.


Carex bebbii (L.H. Bailey) Olney ex Fernald - . 2n = 68, 70.


Shores, meadows, forest seeps, usually in calcareous or neutral soils.


Carex bicknellii Britton - . 2n = 74, 76, 78.


Dry slopes, fields, open woods, rock or sand barrens.


Carex bigelowii Torrey ex Schweinitz subsp. bigelowii - . 2n = (68), (69), 70, (71).


Dry to moist alpine areas.


Carex blanda Dewey - . 2n = 30, 32, 34, 36, 38.


Woods, deciduous or mixed, bottomlands, meadows.


Carex brevior (Dewey) Mackenzie - . 2n = 48, 52, 56, 60, 64, 68, 74.


Dry open soil, often in calcareous or neutral soils.


Carex bromoides Schkuhr ex Willdenow subsp. bromoides - . 2n = 64, 66, 68.


Rich, low woods and swamps.


CAREX BRUNNEA Thunberg - . 2n = 58, 62.


On "made-land" at or near coast, that is, on artificial fill. From east Asia and Australia.


Carex brunnescens (Persoon) Poiret subsp. brunnescens - . 2n = (ca. 44), 56.


Rocky or turfy summits and slopes.


Carex brunnescens (Persoon) Poiret subsp. sphaerostachya (Tuckerman) Kalela - . 2n = 56.

[This taxon is not mapped since the specimens at Harvard including those of the New England Botanical Club are filed together with those of the typical variety with which it intergrades. None of the specimens have been annotated by modern specialists.]

Woods, clearings and rocky slopes. [C. brunnescens var. sphaerostachya (Tuckerman) Kükenthal]


Carex bullata Schkuhr ex Willdenow - . 2n = ?


Bogs, boggy meadows, sphagnous or sandy shores.


Carex bushii Mackenzie - . 2n = 48, 52, 64.


Meadows, usually calcareous, grasslands, open woods.


Carex buxbaumii Wahlenberg - . 2n = 74, 100, 106.


Shores, meadows, swamps, marshes, bogs.


Carex canescens Linnaeus subsp. canescens - . 2n = (54), 56, (60), (62), (72).


Sphagnum bogs, swamps, moist, coniferous woods, meadows. [C. canescens var. subloliacea sensu Fernald]


Carex canescens Linnaeus subsp. disjuncta (Fernald) Toivonen - . 2n = 54.


Sphagnum bogs, swamps, moist, coniferous woods, meadows. [C. canescens var. disjuncta Fernald]


Carex capillaris Linnaeus - . 2n = (18), (48), (52), 54.


Alpine regions. [C. capillaris var. elongata Olney ex Fernald; C. capillaris var. major Drejer]

Carex capitata Linnaeus - . 2n = 50.


Heaths of boreal woods, alpine zones.


CAREX CARYOPHYLLEA Latourette - . 2n = 58, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68.


Dry roadsides, pastures and graveyards. From Europe.


Carex castanea Wahlenberg - . 2n = 44, 64.


Calcareous woods, cedar swamps, meadows.


Carex cephaloidea (Dewey) Dewey - . 2n = 50, 52.


Rich woods, bottomlands and forest margins, on neutral or basic soils. [C. sparganioides Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. cephaloidea (Dewey) J. Carey]


Carex cephalophora Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = 48, 50.


Dry, deciduous or mixed woods and openings.


Carex chordorrhiza Linnaeus (son) - Creeping Sedge. 2n = 60, 62, ca. 66, 70.


Quagmires, bogs, lake shores.


Carex collinsii Nuttall - . 2n = ?


Sphagnum bogs, sphagnous wooded swamps, typically under Picea mariana or Chamaecyparis thyoides.


Carex communis L.H. Bailey var. communis - . 2n = 28.


Woods, slopes, ledges, clearings.


Carex comosa Boott - . 2n = ?


Swamps, shores, marshes, meadows.


Carex conoidea Schkuhr ex Willdenow - Field Sedge. 2n = ?


Grassy meadows and shores, usually in acidic sands or gravel. [C. katahdinensis Fernald]


Carex crawei Dewey - . 2n = 38, 59, 60.


Calcareous shores, gravels, meadows, glades and quarries.


Carex crawfordii Fernald - . 2n = (52), (ca. 66), 68.


Open ground, wet or dry.


Carex crinita Lamarck var. crinita - . 2n = 66, 67, 68.


Swamps, marshes, bogs, shores, meadows, low woods, swales. [C. crinita var. minor Boott]


Carex crinita Lamarck var. brevicrinis Fernald - . 2n = 66.


Wooded swamps, shores, low woods.


Carex cristatella Britton - . 2n = 64, 70.


Meadows, damp woods, marshes, stream banks.


Carex cryptolepis Mackenzie - . 2n = 64.


Shores, on acidic, sandy or organic soil.


Carex cumulata (L.H. Bailey) Mackenzie - . 2n = 56, 58.


Acidic soils, dry or moist, open or wooded, often associated with Polytrichum.


Carex davisii Schweinitz & Torrey - . 2n = ?


Rich, calcareous, deciduous woods, meadows, shores.


Carex debilis Michaux var. debilis - . 2n = 52, 54, 55, 56.


Moist, deciduous woods, edges, clearings swamps, usually in soils with pH below 6.


Carex debilis Michaux var. rudgei L.H. Bailey - . 2n = 50, 52, 54, 56, 60.


Open, moist, deciduous, woods, edges, clearings, meadows, usually on soils with pH below 6. [C. debilis var. interjecta L.H. Bailey; C. debilis var. strictior L.H. Bailey]


Carex deflexa Hornemann var. deflexa - Northern Sedge. 2n = 20, 24, 36.


Woods, clearings, turfy or rocky slopes.


Carex deweyana Schweinitz var. deweyana - . 2n = 54, (56).


Rich, open woods, woodland edges.


Carex diandra Schrank - Panicled Sedge. 2n = (54), 60.


Swampy, marshy or boggy areas, often calcareous.


Carex digitalis Willdenow var. digitalis - . 2n = 48.


Deciduous or mixed woods.


Carex disperma Dewey - . 2n = 70.


Mossy or damp coniferous woods, bogs, clearings. [C. tenella Schkuhr - illegitimate name]


CAREX DIVULSA Stokes subsp. DIVULSA - Grey Sedge. 2n = 58.


Roadsides. From Eurasia.


Carex eburnea Boott - . 2n = 54.


Calcareous ledges, gravels or sands.


Carex echinata Murray subsp. echinata - . 2n = (50), (52), 56, 58.


Sphagnous soils. [C. angustior Mackenzie; C. cephalantha (L.H. Bailey) E.P. Bicknell; C. laricina Mackenzie ex Bright; C. muricata Linnaeus var. angustata (J. Carey) J. Carey ex Gleason; C. muricata Linnaeus var. laricina (Mackenzie ex Bright) Gleason]


Carex echinodes (Fernald) P. Rothrock, Reznicek & Hipp - . 2n = 74, 76, 78.


Rich, swampy or alluvial woods, margins of vernal pools. [C. tenera Dewey var. echinodes (Fernald) Wiegand]


Carex emoryi Dewey - . 2n = 72.


Swamps, shores, most often in basic or calcareous waters.


Carex exilis Dewey - . 2n = ca. 62.


Sphagnum bogs, fens.


Carex festucacea Schkuhr ex Willdenow - . 2n = 68, 70, 71.


Wet or seasonally wet places, low woods.


CAREX FLACCA Schreber - . 2n = (38), (56), 76, (90).


Abandoned quarries, ditches, marshes.


Carex flava Linnaeus - Yellow Sedge. 2n = (30), (33), (53), (56), (58), 60, (62), (63), (64), (68), (70).


Moist to wet habitats on calcareous soils. [C. flava var. fertilis Peck; C. flava var. gaspensis Fernald; C. flava var. laxior (Kükenthal) Gleason]


Carex foenea Willdenow - . 2n = 80, 82, 84.


Dry, open, usually acidic soil. [C. aenea Fernald; see also C. siccata]


Carex folliculata Linnaeus - . 2n = 56.


Wet woods, bogs, shores, in acidic, sandy or sphagnous soils.


Carex formosa Dewey - Thicket Sedge. 2n = 52.


Calcareous, deciduous woods, meadows.


Carex garberi Fernald - . 2n = 52.


Calcareous shores, meadows, shaded ledges. [C. garberi var. bifaria Fernald]


Carex glaucodea Tuckerman ex Olney - . 2n = ?


Calcareous, deciduous woods. [C. flaccosperma Dewey var. glaucodea (Tuckerman ex Olney) Kükenthal]


Carex gracilescens Steudel - . 2n = 33, 38, 40.


Rich woods, woodland edges, frequently in calcareous soil. [C. laxiflora Lamarck var. gracillima (Boott) B.L. Robinson & Fernald]


Carex gracillima Schweinitz - . 2n = (50), 52, 54, (84).


Woods, woodland edges, meadows, roadsides.


Carex granularis Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - Meadow Sedge. 2n = 36, 38, 40, 42.


Calcareous woods, shores, meadows. [C. granularis var. haleana (Olney) Porter]


Carex grayi J. Carey - . 2n = 52, 54.


Calcareous meadows, alluvial woods. [C. grayi var. hispidula A. Gray ex L.H. Bailey]


Carex grisea Wahlenberg - . 2n = ?


Rich, deciduous woods, bottomlands, meadows. [C. amphibola Steudel var. turgida Fernald]


Carex gynandra Schweinitz - . 2n = 68.


Swamps, alluvial woods, meadows, marshes, bogs, shores. [C. crinita Lamarck var. gynandra (Schweinitz) Schweinitz & Torrey; C. crinita var. simulans Fernald]


Carex gynocrates Wormskjöld ex Drejer - . 2n = 34, 48, 50, 70.


Wet, sphagnous soils. [C. dioica Linnaeus var. gynocrates (Wormskjöld ex Drejer) Ostenfeld]


Carex haydenii Dewey - . 2n = 54.


Wet meadows, thickets, mostly in rich soil.


Carex hirsutella Mackenzie - . 2n = 52.


Open woods, meadows, fields, in neutral to basic soils. [C. complanata Torrey & Hooker var. hirsuta (L.H. Bailey) Gleason]


CAREX HIRTA Linnaeus - . 2n = 112.


Dry fields, roadsides, railroad embankments. From Europe.


Carex hirtifolia Mackenzie - . 2n = 50.


Rich woods and meadows, often calcareous.


Carex hitchcockiana Dewey - . 2n = ?


Rich or calcareous woods.


Carex hormathodes Fernald - . 2n = 74.


Brackish to freshwater marshes, coastal sands and rocks. [C. straminea Willdenow var. invisa W. Boott]


CAREX HOSTIANA de Candolle - . 2n = 56.


Marshes, meadows, shores, glades in calcareous soils. [C. hostiana var. laurentiana (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald & Wiegand] [Collected only once in New England, from Tewksbury, Massachusetts, prior to 1837. The likelihood that this is a waif or is mislabeled as to place of collection is significant, particulary since a herbarium specimen of another rare species, CAREX LAEVIGATA, is labeled as collected at the same locality by the same collector.]


Carex houghtoniana Torrey ex Dewey - . 2n = 56.


Dry, acid sands and gravels, rocky openings. [C. "houghtonii" Torrey - often used, but not as originally published]


Carex hystericina Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = 58.


Swamps, shores, meadows, seeps, mostly in calcareous soils.


Carex interior L.H. Bailey - . 2n = 54.


Swamps, shores, meadows, seeps, often in calcareous soils.


Carex intumescens Rudge - . 2n = 48.


Alluvial woods, wet meadows, swales. [C. intumescens var. fernaldii L.H. Bailey]


CAREX KOBOMUGI Ohwi - . 2n = 84, 88.


Coastal sandy beaches. From east Asia.


Carex lacustris Willdenow - . 2n = 74.


Swamps, shores, meadows, marsh edges, in calcareous or circumneutral soil.


CAREX LAEVIGATA Smith - . 2n = (69-80), 72.


Meadows, shores. From Europe. [Collected only once in North America, from Tewksbury, Massachusetts, prior to 1837. The likelihood that this is a waif or is mislabeled as to place of collection is significant, particulary since a herbarium specimen of another rare species, CAREX HOSTIANA, is labeled as collected at the same locality by the same collector.]


Carex laevivaginata (Kükenthal) Mackenzie - . 2n = 46, 50.


Swamps, meadows, marshes, alluvial bottomlands, especially in calcareous soils.


Carex lasiocarpa Ehrhart - . 2n = 56, (78), (80), (81), (84), (85).


Rich meadows, bogs, shores, swales. [C. lasiocarpa var. americana Fernald; C. lanuginosa Michaux, but see also C. pellita]


Carex laxiculmis Schweinitz var. laxiculmis - . 2n = 44, 46, 50.


Rich, moist woods.


Carex laxiflora Lamarck - . 2n = 40, 52.


Rich woods. [C. laxiflora var. serrulata F.J. Hermann]


Carex lenticularis Michaux var. lenticularis - Shore Sedge. 2n = 68, 88.


Shores, meadows, borders of alpine brooks. [C. lenticularis var. albimontana Dewey; C. lenticularis var. blakei Dewey]


CAREX LEPORINA Linnaeus - . 2n = (58), (62), 64, 66, 68, (72), (73), (74).


Dry pastures, roadsides. From farther west and Eurasia. [C. ovalis misapplied]


Carex leptalea Wahlenberg - . 2n = 52.


Wet woods, swales, marshy fields.


Carex leptonervia (Fernald) Fernald - . 2n = 36, 38.


Low woods, clearings, thickets.


Carex limosa Linnaeus - . 2n = 56, 58, (61), (62), (63), 64.


Bogs, meadows, shores.


Carex livida (Wahlenberg) Willdenow - . 2n = 32, (50), (52).


Calcareous meadows and bogs. [C. livida var. grayana (Dewey) Fernald; C. livida var. radicaulis Paine]


Carex longii Mackenzie - . 2n = 58, 60, 62.


Wet, sandy or peaty soils.


Carex lucorum Willdenow ex Link var. lucorum - . 2n = 40.


Acidic, often sandy, soils in open pine and oak woods and clearings. [C. pensylvanica Lamarck var. distans Peck]


Carex lupuliformis Sartwell ex Dewey - . 2n = 60.


Calcareous swamps, meadows, marshes.


Carex lupulina Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = 56.


Wet woods, swamps, meadows. [C. lupulina var. pedunculata A. Gray ex L.C. Beck]


Carex lurida Wahlenberg - . 2n = 60.


Swamps, wet woods, shores, meadows, marshes, mostly in acidic soils.


Carex mackenziei V.I. Kreczetowicz - . 2n = 64, 68, 72.


Coastal saline or brackish marshes and shores.


Carex magellanica Lamarck subsp. irrigua (Wahlenberg) Hiitonen - Bog Sedge. 2n = 58.


Sphagnous bogs, meadows, wet woods and marshes. [C. paupercula Michaux; C. paupercula Michaux var. irrigua (Wahlenberg) Fernald; C. paupercula Michaux var. pallens Fernald]


Carex media R. Brown ex Richardson - . 2n = 56.


Mossy woods, meadows, shores, often in calcareous soil. [C. norvegica misapplied; C. norvegica Retzius subsp. inferalpina (Wahlenberg) Hultén]


Carex merritt-fernaldii Mackenzie - . 2n = 68, 70, 74.


Dry rocky or gravelly places, dryish meadows, in acidic soil.


Carex mesochorea Mackenzie - . 2n = ?


Dry, open soil. [C. cephalophora Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. mesochorea (Mackenzie) Gleason]


Carex michauxiana Boeckeler - . 2n = ?


Bogs, shores, swamps, often acidic soils.


Carex mitchelliana M.A. Curtis - . 2n = 66.


Swamps, wet woods, shores, wet meadows. [C. crinita Lamarck var. mitchelliana (M.A. Curtis) Gleason]


Carex molesta Mackenzie ex Bright - . 2n = 68, 70.


Open areas, dry or moist, often in calcareous soils.


Carex muehlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. muehlenbergii - . 2n = 46.


Dry fields and open woods, often in sand.


Carex muehlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. enervis Boott - . 2n = ?


Dry fields and open woods, often in sand.


Carex nigra (Linnaeus) Reichard - . 2n = (73), (74), (76), (79), (80), (81), (82), 83, 84, 85, (86), (88), (92).


Wet meadows, swamps, open turf, swales. [C. nigra var. strictiformis (L.H. Bailey) Fernald]


Carex nigromarginata Schweinitz - . 2n = 68.


Dry woods, thickets, clearings in acidic soils.


Carex normalis Mackenzie - . 2n = 68.


Rich, open woods, thickets.


Carex novae-angliae Schweinitz - . 2n = 30.


Mixed deciduous woods, usually moist.


CAREX OKLAHOMENSIS Mackenzie - . 2n = ?


Wet meadows, marshes. From farther south and west.


Carex oligocarpa Schkuhr ex Willdenow - . 2n = ?


Calcareous woods.


Carex oligosperma Michaux - . 2n = 76.


Sphagnum bogs, acid swamps, shores.


Carex ormostachya Wiegand - . 2n = ?


Mixed or evergreen woods, frequently in sandy or rocky soil. [C. laxiflora Lamarck var. ormostachya (Wiegand) Gleason]


Carex oronensis Fernald - . 2n = 74.


Fields, meadows, thickets.


Carex paleacea Schreber ex Wahlenberg - . 2n = 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 80.


Salt marshes, intertidal shores.


Carex pallescens Linnaeus - . 2n = 58, 62, 64, 66.


Meadows, thickets. [C. pallescens var. neogaea Fernald]


CAREX PANICEA Linnaeus - . 2n = 32.


Meadows, acidic fields. From Europe.


Carex pauciflora Lightfoot - . 2n = (46), 76.


Sphagnum bogs.


Carex peckii Howe - . 2n = 36.


Calcareous rocky slopes, rich, open woods. [C. nigromarginata Schweinitz var. elliptica (Boott) Gleason; C. nigromarginata var. minor (Boott) Gleason]


Carex pedunculata Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = 26.


Rich woods.


Carex pellita Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = 78.


Meadows, marshes, shores, especially in calcareous soils. [C. lanuginosa misapplied; C. lasiocarpa Ehrhart var. latifolia (Boeckeler) Gilly]


Carex pensylvanica Lamarck - Early Sedge. 2n = 36.


Open, dry soil, open woods.


Carex planispicata Naczi - . 2n = ?


Alluvial woods, river meadows. [C. amphibola Steudel var. rigida (L.H. Bailey) Fernald]


Carex plantaginea Lamarck - . 2n = 52.


Rich, deciduous or mixed woods.


Carex platyphylla J. Carey - . 2n = 70.


Rich, deciduous woods, rocky slopes.


Carex polymorpha Muhlenberg - . 2n = ?


Dry, sandy soil of open woods and clearings.


CAREX PRAEGRACILIS W. Boott - . 2n = 60.


Low, open ground, shores. From farther west.


Carex prairea Dewey - . 2n = 66.


Calcareous bogs, meadows, swamps.


Carex prasina Wahlenberg - Drooping Sedge. 2n = 60.


Rich, low woods, meadows.


Carex praticola Rydberg - . 2n = ca. 70, 76, 78.


Open woods, dry clearings, meadows.


Carex projecta Mackenzie - . 2n = 62, 64, 66.


Damp woods, thickets, meadows, shores.


Carex pseudocyperus Linnaeus - . 2n = 66.


Shores, swamps, bogs.


Carex radiata (Wahlenberg) Small - . 2n = 58.


Moist woods. [C. rosea misapplied]


Carex rariflora (Wahlenberg) Smith - . 2n = (50), 52, (54).


Peaty barrens, bogs.


Carex recta Boott - . 2n = 70, 73, 74, 75, 76, 84, 146.


Salt marshes, brackish meadows. [C. salina Wahlenberg var. kattegatensis Almquist - illegitimate name]


Carex retroflexa Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = 40.


Dry, rocky, open, deciduous woods.


Carex retrorsa Schweinitz - . 2n = 70.


Alluvial woods, low grounds, swamps, shores.


Carex reznicekii Werier - . 2n = ?


Deciduous woods.


Carex richardsonii R. Brown - . 2n = 52.


Calcareous rocks, open woods.


Carex rosea Schkuhr ex Willdenow - . 2n = 52, 56.


Dry, open woods. [C. convoluta Mackenzie; see also C. radiata]


Carex rostrata Stokes - . 2n = 42, 60, 72, 76, 80, 82.


Shores, swamps, bogs. [C. rostrata var. ambigens Fernald; see also C. utriculata]


Carex saxatilis Linnaeus - . 2n = (40), (52), (60), 80.


Sphagnous shores. [C. saxatilis var. miliaris (Michaux) L.H. Bailey; C. saxatilis var. rhomalea Fernald; C. miliaris Michaux]


Carex scabrata Schweinitz - . 2n = 54.


Wet woods.


Carex schweinitzii Dewey ex Schweinitz - . 2n = ?


Calcareous swamps, meadows and shores.


Carex scirpoidea Michaux subsp. scirpoidea - . 2n = 62, (64).


Rocky ledges at high altitudes, often in calcareous soil.


Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. scoparia - Broom Sedge. 2n = 56, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 66, 67, 68, 70.


Open areas, usually in acidic, often sandy soil.


Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. tessellata Fernald & Wiegand - . 2n = ?


Sandy, acidic soils. [C. waponahkikensis Lovit & A. Haines]


Carex seorsa Howe - . 2n = 48.


Wet woods, swamps, bogs.


Carex siccata Dewey - . 2n = 70.


Open, sandy woods, fields, and rock outcrops. [C. foenea misapplied]


Carex silicea Olney - . 2n = 74.


Coastal sandy beaches and dunes.


Carex sparganioides Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = 48.


Rich woods.


CAREX SPICATA Hudson - . 2n = 58, (60).


Dry fields, roadsides and open woods. From Eurasia.


Carex sprengelii Dewey ex Sprengel - . 2n = 42.


Rocky woods, alluvial thickets, river terraces, often in calcareous soil.


Carex squarrosa Linnaeus - . 2n = 56.


Meadows and low woods.


Carex sterilis Willdenow - . 2n = ?


Wet, calcareous soil. [C. elachycarpa Fernald; C. muricata Linnaeus var. sterilis (Willdenow) Gleason]


Carex stipata Muhlenberg ex Willdenow var. stipata - . 2n = 52.


Swamps, marshes, alluvial bottomlands, meadows, bogs.


Carex straminea Willdenow - . 2n = 74.


Swamps, freshwater marshes, meadows, swales, in sandy or peaty, acidic soils.


Carex striata Michaux - . 2n = ?


Pond shores, in acidic, often peaty, soils. [C. walteriana L.H. Bailey; C. walteriana var. brevis (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey]


Carex striatula Michaux - . 2n = 36, 40.


Rich, deciduous or mixed woods. [C. laxiflora Lamarck var. angustifolia Dewey]


Carex stricta Lamarck - Tussock Sedge. 2n = 68, 70.


Swamps, shores, meadows. [C. stricta Lamarck var. strictior (Dewey) J. Carey]


Carex styloflexa Buckley - . 2n = 48.


Moist, rich woods, springheads.


Carex swanii (Fernald) Mackenzie - . 2n = 54.


Woods, often dry, thickets, clearings.


Carex sychnocephala J. Carey - . 2n = 64.


Open, sandy or peaty shores.


Carex tenera Dewey var. tenera - . 2n = 52, 54, 56.


Meadows, open woods.


Carex tenuiflora Wahlenberg - . 2n = 58, 62, 64.


Sphagnum bogs, mossy woods.


Carex tetanica Schkuhr - . 2n = 56.


Calcareous bogs.


Carex tincta (Fernald) Fernald - . 2n = 74, 76.


Fields, open woods.


Carex tonsa (Fernald) E.P. Bicknell var. tonsa - . 2n = 32.


Dry, sandy fields, openings and roadsides.


Carex tonsa (Fernald) E.P. Bicknell var. rugosperma (Mackenzie) Crins - . 2n = ?.


Dry, sandy fields, openings and roadsides. [C. rugosperma Mackenzie]


Carex torta Boott - . 2n = 66.


Stream banks.


Carex tribuloides Wahlenberg var. tribuloides - . 2n = 68, 70, 72.


Bottomlands, swales, meadows.


Carex trichocarpa Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = ?


Calcareous marshes, bottomlands and meadows.


Carex trisperma Dewey - . 2n = 60.


Sphagnous, wet woods and bogs. [C. trisperma var. billingsii O.W. Knight]


Carex tuckermanii Dewey - . 2n = ?


Meadows, shores, swamps.


Carex typhina Michaux - . 2n = 54.


Shores, meadows, wet woods.


Carex umbellata Schkuhr ex Willdenow - Sand Sedge. 2n = 30.


Dry soil in open woods, clearings and fields. [C. abdita E.P. Bicknell]


Carex utriculata Boott - . 2n = 82.


Swamps, marshes, meadows, bogs, shores. [C. rostrata Stokes var. utriculata (Boott) L.H. Bailey; C. rostrata misapplied]


Carex vacillans Drejer - . 2n = 78, 79.


Coastal shores and salt marshes.


Carex vaginata Tausch - . 2n = (30), 32.


Calcareous bogs, swamps and boggy woods.


Carex vesicaria Linnaeus - . 2n = (70), 74, 82, (86), (88).


Swamps, meadows, marshes, shores. [C. vesicaria var. distenta Fries; C. vesicaria var. jejuna Fernald; C. vesicaria var. monile (Tuckerman ex Boott) Fernald; C. vesicaria var. raeana (Boott) Fernald)]


Carex vestita Willdenow - Stiff Sedge. 2n = ?


Dry, sandy woods and clearings.


Carex virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - . 2n = 60.


Dry woods, clearings.


Carex viridula Michaux var. viridula - . 2n = 60, 68, 70, 72.


Shores, often calcareous, springy places.


CAREX VIRIDULA Michaux subsp. OEDOCARPA (Andersson) B. Schmid - . 2n = (68), 70.


Shores and meadows, in acidic soil. From Europe and northwestern Africa. [C. demissa Hornemann]


Carex vulpinoidea Michaux - . 2n = 52.


Low, open ground, shores, meadows, marshes. [C. setacea Dewey]


Carex wiegandii Mackenzie - . 2n = ?


Bogs and sphagnous areas.


Carex willdenowii Schkuhr ex Willdenow - . 2n = 78.


Dry, rocky, acidic woods.


Carex hybrids

Carex X aestivaliformis Mackenzie - .


[C. aestivalis M.A. Curtis ex A. Gray X C. gracillima Schweinitz]


Carex bebbii (L.H. Bailey) Olney ex Fernald X C. scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. scoparia - .



Carex comosa Boott X C. lurida Wahlenberg - .



Carex crinita Lamarck X C. lacustris Willdenow - .



Carex crinita Lamarck X C. scabrata Schweinitz - .



Carex crinita Lamarck X C. torta Boott - .



Carex crinita Lamarck X C. vesicaria Linnaeus - .



Carex cryptolepis Mackenzie X C. flava Linnaeus - .



Carex cryptolepis Mackenzie X C. viridula Michaux var. viridula - .



Carex cumulata (L.H. Bailey) Mackenzie X C. scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. scoparia - .



Carex digitalis Willdenow X C. laxiculmis Schweinitz - .



Carex echinata Murray X C. interior L.H. Bailey - .



Carex gracillima Schweinitz X C. virescens Muhlenberg ex Willdenow - .



Carex gynandra Schweinitz X C. scabrata Schweinitz - .



Carex X hartii Dewey (pro species) - .


[C. lurida Wahlenberg X C. retrorsa Schweinitz]


Carex hormathodes Fernald X C. scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. scoparia - .



Carex X knieskernii Dewey (pro species) - .


[C. arctata Boott X C. castanea Wahlenberg]


Carex lasiocarpa Ehrhart X C. stricta Lamarck - .



Carex lupulina Muhlenberg ex Willdenow X C. lurida Wahlenberg - .



Carex lurida Wahlenberg X C. mitchelliana M.A. Curtis - .



Carex lurida Wahlenberg X C. utriculata Boott - .



Carex X olneyi Boott - .


[C. bullata Schkuhr ex Willdenow X C. utriculata Boott]


Carex paleacea Schreber ex Wahlenberg X C. stricta Lamarck - .



Carex pensylvanica Lamarck X C. umbellata Schkuhr ex Willdenow - .



Carex X pseudohelvola Kihlman (pro species) - .


[C. canescens Linnaeus subsp. canescens X C. mackenziei V.I. Kreczetowicz]


Carex X ruedtii Kneucker - .


[C. flava Linnaeus X C. viridula Michaux var. viridula; C. X subviridula Fernald]


Carex X saxenii Raymond - .


[C. paleacea Schreber ex Wahlenberg X C. recta Boott]


Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. scoparia X C. straminea Willdenow - .



Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. scoparia X C. tincta (Fernald) Fernald - .



Carex scoparia Schkuhr ex Willdenow var. scoparia X C. tribuloides Wahlenberg - .



Carex X stenolepis Lessing - .


[C. saxatalis Linnaeus X C. vesicaria Linnaeus; C. X mainensis Porter ex Britton]


Carex X sullivantii Boott - .


[C. gracillima Schweinitz X C. hirtifolia Mackenzie]


Carex tenera Dewey X C. tincta (Fernald) Fernald - .



Carex X trichina Fernald - .


[C. tenuiflora Wahlenberg X C. trisperma Dewey]



CARPINUS (Family: Betulaceae)


Carpinus caroliniana Walter subsp. virginiana (Marshall) Furlow - American Hornbeam. 2n = 16.


Stream and swamp borders, rich, moist woods. [C. caroliniana var. virginiana (Marshall) Fernald]



CARTHAMUS (Family: Asteraceae)


CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS Linnaeus - Safflower. 2n = 24.


Waste areas. Probably from western Asia.



CARUM (Family: Apiaceae)


CARUM CARVI Linnaeus - Caraway. 2n = 20, (22).


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia, northwestern Africa.



CARYA (Family: Juglandaceae)


Carya cordiformis (Wangenheim) K. Koch - Bitternut Hickory. 2n = 32.


Wet woods, damp fields, stream banks, hillsides, roadsides.


Carya glabra (Miller) Sweet - Pignut Hickory. 2n = 64.


Woods, dry hills. [C. glabra var. odorata (Marshall) Little; C. ovalis (Wangenheim) Sargent; C. ovalis var. hirsuta (Ashe) Sargent; C. ovalis var. obcordata (Pursh) Sargent; C. ovalis var. obovalis Sargent; C. ovalis var. odorata (Marshall) Sargent]


Carya ovata (Miller) K. Koch var. ovata - Shagbark Hickory. 2n = 32.



Rich, moist soils of woods, slopes, and roadsides.


Carya tomentosa (Lamarck) Nuttall - Mockernut Hickory. 2n = 64.


Woods in well-drained soil, rocky hillsides. [C. alba - ambiguous name]

Carya hybrid

Carya X laneyi Sargent - .


[C. cordiformis (Wangenheim) K. Koch X C. ovata (Miller) K. Koch var. ovata]



CASTANEA (Family: Fagaceae)


Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkhausen - American Chestnut. 2n = 24.


Dry woods, mostly in acidic soil.


CASTANEA MOLLISSIMA Blume - Chinese Chestnut. 2n = 24.


Field borders, pine woods. From eastern Asia.


CASTANEA PUMILA (Linnaeus) Miller - Chinquapin. 2n = ?


Dry, open woods. From farther south.


CASTANEA SATIVA Miller - Spanish Chestnut. 2n = 22, 24.


Dry woods. From Eurasia.



CASTILLEJA (Family: Orobanchaceae)


Castilleja coccinea (Linnaeus) Sprengel - Scarlet Painted-cup. 2n = 24, 46, 48.


Meadows, swamps.


Castilleja septentrionalis Lindley - . 2n = 24, (ca. 96).


Rocky or peaty soil at high altitudes, gravelly or rocky river shores and banks.



CATALPA (Family: Bignoniaceae)


CATALPA BIGNONIOIDES Walter - Southern Catalpa. 2n = 40.


Roadsides, waste places, streambanks. From farther south.


CATALPA OVATA G. Don - Chinese Catalpa. 2n = 40.


Roadsides, railroads, waste places, streambanks. From China.


CATALPA SPECIOSA Teas - Northern Catalpa. 2n = 40.


Roadsides, railroads, waste places, moist woods, streambanks. From farther south and west.



CATAPODIUM (Family: Poaceae)


CATAPODIUM RIGIDUM (Linnaeus) C.E. Hubbard - . 2n = 14, (28).


Waste places. From Europe. [DESMAZERIA RIGIDA (Linnaeus) Tutin; SCLEROPOA RIGIDA (Linnaeus) Grisebach]



CAULOPHYLLUM (Family: Berberidaceae)


Caulophyllum giganteum (Farwell) Loconte & W.H. Blackwell - . 2n = 16.


Rich woods.


Caulophyllum thalictroides (Linnaeus) Michaux - Blue Cohosh. 2n = 16.


Rich woods.



CEANOTHUS (Family: Rhamnaceae)


Ceanothus americanus Linnaeus - New Jersey Tea. 2n = 24.


Thickets, open woodlands, rocky or gravelly banks, roadsides, in dry, open soil. [C. americanus var. intermedius (Pursh) Torrey & A. Gray]


Ceanothus herbaceus Rafinesque - Prairie Redroot. 2n = 24.


Lake shores, fields, in dry, open, sandy soil. [C. ovatus misapplied]



CELASTRUS (Family: Celastraceae)


CELASTRUS ORBICULATUS Thunberg - Asian Bittersweet. 2n = 46.


Roadsides, thickets, woodland margins, open woodlands. From eastern Asia.


Celastrus scandens Linnaeus - American Bittersweet. 2n = 46.


River thickets, roadsides, woodland margins, rocky, deciduous woodlands, usually in rich soil.



CELOSIA (Family: Amaranthaceae)


CELOSIA CRISTATA Linnaeus - Cultivated Cockscomb. 2n = (35), 36, (54).


Waste places. From cultivation. [C. ARGENTEA Linnaeus var. CRISTATA (Linnaeus) Kuntze]



CELTIS (Family: Cannabaceae)


Celtis occidentalis Linnaeus - Hackberry. 2n = 20, (28).


Rich woods, along streams, roadsides. [C. occidentalis var. canina (Rafinesque) Sargent; C. occidentalis var. pumila (Pursh) A. Gray]



CENCHRUS (Family: Poaceae)


CENCHRUS INCERTUS M.A. Curtis - Coast Sandbur. 2n = (32), 34.


Sandy areas. From farther south. [C. PAUCIFLORUS Bentham; C. SPINIFEX Cavanilles - doubtful name possibly misapplied]

Cenchrus longispinus (Hackel) Fernald - Field Sandbur. 2n = 34.


Sandy fields, roadsides, railroads.



CENTAUREA (Family: Asteraceae)


CENTAUREA BENEDICTA (Linnaeus) Linnaeus - Blessed Thistle. 2n = 22.


Waste places, roadsides. From Mediterranean region, Asia Minor. [CNICUS BENEDICTUS Linnaeus]


CENTAUREA CALCITRAPA Linnaeus - Purple Star-thistle. 2n = 20.


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


CENTAUREA CYANUS Linnaeus - Cornflower. 2n = (18), (20), 24, (48).


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia.


CENTAUREA DIFFUSA Lamarck - 2n = (16), 18.


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia.


CENTAUREA JACEA Linnaeus - Brown Knapweed. 2n = (20), (22), 44.


Roadsides, waste places, fields. From Eurasia. [C. AMARA Linnaeus]


CENTAUREA MELITENSIS Linnaeus - Tocalote. 2n = (14), (18), (20), (22), 24, (36).


Waste places. From the Mediterranean region.


CENTAUREA MONTANA Linnaeus - Mountain-bluet. 2n = 24, 40, 44.


Railroads, roadsides, waste places. From Europe.


CENTAUREA NIGRA Linnaeus - Garden Catchfly. 2n = 22, 44.


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Europe.


CENTAUREA NIGRESCENS Willdenow - Tyrol Knapweed. 2n = 44.


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia. [C. DUBIA misapplied; C. VOCHINENSIS Bernhardi ex Reichenbach]


CENTAUREA SCABIOSA Linnaeus - Greater Knapweed. 2n = (14), 20, 40.


Meadows, fields, roadsides, railroads. From Europe.


CENTAUREA SOLSTITIALIS Linnaeus - Yellow Star-thistle. 2n = 16, (18).


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


CENTAUREA STOEBE Linnaeus subsp. AUSTRALIS (Pančić ex A. Kerner) Greuter - 2n = 36.


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Europe. [C. MACULOSA misapplied; C. STOEBE subsp. MICRANTHOS (S.G. Gmelin ex Gugler) Hayek]

Centaurea hybrid

CENTAUREA X MONCKTONII C.E. Britton - .


[C. NIGRA Linnaeus var. RADIATA de Candolle; C. PRATENSIS Thuillier -- illegitimate name; C. JACEA Linnaeus X C. NIGRA Linnaeus]



CENTAURIUM (Family: Gentianaceae)


CENTAURIUM ERYTHRAEA Rafn - Common Centaury. 2n = (20), 40, (42).


Fields, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [C. MINUS Garsault -- illegitimate name; C. UMBELLATUM Gilibert -- illegitimate name]


CENTAURIUM PULCHELLUM (Swartz) Hayek ex Handel-Mazzetti, Stadlemann, Janchen & Faltis - Lesser Centaury. 2n = (14), (18), (20), 36, 38, (40), (42), (54), (56), (72).


Waste places, roadsides, railroads, open sandy or gravelly areas. From Eurasia.



CEPHALANTHUS (Family: Rubiaceae)


Cephalanthus occidentalis Linnaeus - Buttonbush. 2n = 44.


Muddy freshwater shores, swamps, bogs, marshes, pond margins.



CEPHALARIA (Family: Dipsacaceae)


CEPHALARIA GIGANTEA (Ledebour) Bobrov - Yellow Scabious. 2n = (35), 36.


Roadsides. From southwestern Asia. [C. TATARICA misapplied]



CERASTIUM (Family: Caryophyllaceae)


CERASTIUM ARVENSE Linnaeus subsp. ARVENSE - Field Chickweed. 2n = 36, (38), 72, (90).


Fields, roadsides, shores, cemeteries. From western Europe.


Cerastium arvense Linnaeus subsp. strictum Gaudin - Field Chickweed. 2n = 36.

Cliffs, gravel, roadsides, favoring basic soils. [C. arvense var. viscidulum Gremli] This taxon is not mapped because it is not typically separated from the typical subspecies in New England herbaria.


CERASTIUM DIFFUSUM Persoon - . 2n = (36), 72.


Waste places. From Europe. [C. TETRANDRUM Curtis - illegitimate name]


CERASTIUM FONTANUM Baumgarten subsp. VULGARE (Hartman) Greuter & Burdet - Common Mouse-ear. 2n = 144, ca. 160.


Fields, waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia. [C. VULGATUM misapplied]


CERASTIUM GLOMERATUM Thuillier - Sticky Mouse-ear. 2n = 72.


Waste places, fields, roadsides. From Europe. [C. VISCOSUM misapplied]


Cerastium nutans Rafinesque var. nutans - Nodding Chickweed. 2n = 36.


Moist ledges, rich hillsides, alluvium, calcareous rocks.


CERASTIUM PUMILUM Curtis - European Chickweed. 2n = 72, 90, 95.


Dry, sandy fields and roadsides. From Eurasia.


CERASTIUM SEMIDECANDRUM Linnaeus - Little Mouse-ear. 2n = (18), 36, (37).


Dry, sandy fields and roadsides. From Eurasia.


CERASTIUM TOMENTOSUM Linnaeus - Snow-in-summer. 2n = 36, 72, (90), (108).


Roadsides, riverbanks, old fields. From southeastern Europe. [C. BIEBERSTEINII misapplied]



CERATOPHYLLUM (Family: Ceratophyllaceae)


Ceratophyllum demersum Linnaeus - Coontail. 2n = 24, (28), (38), (40), (48).


Quiet water of lakes, ponds and streams.


Ceratophyllum echinatum A. Gray - . 2n = 24.


Quiet water of lakes, ponds and streams.



CERCIDIPHYLLUM (Family: Cercidiphyllaceae)


CERCIDIPHYLLUM JAPONICUM Siebold & Zuccarini ex J.J. Hoffmann & J.H. Schultes (later) - Katsura-tree. 2n = 38.


Woods, disturbed areas. From eastern Asia.




CERCIS(Family: Fabaceae)


Cercis canadensis Linnaeus var. canadensis - Redbud. 2n = (12), 14.


Rocky woods.



CHAENACTIS (Family: Asteraceae)


CHAENACTIS GLABRIUSCULA de Candolle var. GLABRIUSCULA - 2n = 10, 12, (13), 14, (16), (18), (34).


Wool waste. From farther west.



CHAENOMELES (Family: Rosaceae)


CHAENOMELES JAPONICA (Thunberg) Lindley ex Spach - Japanese Flowering-quince. 2n = 34.


Railroad ditches, moist woods. From Japan. [CYDONIA JAPONICA (Thunberg) Persoon]


CHAENOMELES SPECIOSA (Sweet) Nakai - Chinese Flowering-quince. 2n = 34.


Woods by pond shore, roadsides, thickets. From China, southeastern Asia. [CYDONIA SPECIOSA Sweet]



CHAENORHINUM (Family: Plantaginaceae)


CHAENORHINUM MINUS (Linnaeus) Lange subsp. MINUS - . 2n = (12), 14, (28).


Waste places, roadsides, railroads. From Eurasia.



CHAMAECRISTA (Family: Fabaceae)


Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michaux) Greene var. fasciculata - Partridge-pea. 2n = 14, 16.


Sandy, open fields and clearings, usually dry, roadsides. [Cassia fasciculata Michaux; C. chamaecrista misapplied]

Chamaecrista nictitans Moench subsp. nictitans - Wild Sensitive Plant. 2n = 48.


Gravelly or sandy, open soil, fields, roadsides. [Cassia nictitans Linnaeus]



CHAMAECYPARIS (Family: Cupressaceae)


Chamaecyparis thyoides (Linnaeus) Britton, Sterns & Poggenburg. - Atlantic White Cedar. 2n = 22.


Swamps, wet thickets.    CONN herbarium image



CHAMAEDAPHNE (Family: Ericaceae)


Chamaedaphne calyculata (Linnaeus) Moench - Leatherleaf. 2n = 22.


Peaty soil of bogs, swamps, pond margins, barrens and swales. [C. calyculata var. angustifolia (Aiton) Rehder; C. calyculata var. latifolia (Aiton) Fernald; Cassandra calyculata (Linnaeus) D. Don var. angustifolia (Aiton) A. Gray; C. calyculata var. latifolia (Aiton) F. Seymour]



CHAMAELIRIUM (Family: Melanthiaceae)


Chamaelirium luteum (Linnaeus) A. Gray - Blazing-star. 2n = ?


Meadows, thickets, rich woods.



CHAMAEMELUM (Family: Asteraceae)


CHAMAEMELUM NOBILE (Linnaeus) Allioni - Garden Chamomile. 2n = 18.


Dry, oak woods, disturbed sites, roadsides. From Europe, northern Africa. [ANTHEMIS NOBILIS Linnaeus]



CHAMAENERION (Family: Onagraceae)


Chamaenerion angustifolium (Linnaeus) Scopoli subsp. circumvagum (Mosquin) Moldenke - Fireweed. 2n = 72.


Burned woodlands, recent clearings, thickets, roadsides, fields. [Chamerion angustifolium (Linnaeus) Holub subsp. circumvagum (Mosquin) Hoch; Epilobium angustifolium Linnaeus var. angustifolium misapplied; E. angustifolium var. canescens Alph. Wood]



CHASMANTHIUM (Family: Poaceae)


CHASMANTHIUM LATIFOLIUM (Michaux) H.O. Yates - 2n = (24), 48.


Trailside near shore. From farther south. [UNIOLA LATIFOLIA Michaux]



CHELIDONIUM (Family: Papaveraceae)


CHELIDONIUM MAJUS Linnaeus - Celandine. 2n = (10), 12, (36).


Damp soil about towns, roadsides, railroads, waste areas, thickets. From Eurasia. [C. MAJUS var. PLENUM H.R. Wehrhahn]



CHELONE (Family: Plantaginaceae)


Chelone glabra Linnaeus - White Turtlehead. 2n = 28.


Swamps, wet ditches, riverbanks, wet woods, thickets, and meadows, pond and lake shores, marshes. [C. glabra var. dilatata Fernald & Wiegand; C. glabra var. elatior Rafinesque]


CHELONE LYONII Pursh - Pink Turtlehead. 2n = 28.


Swamps, stream banks, marsh margins. From farther south.


CHELONE OBLIQUA Linnaeus var. OBLIQUA - Red Turtlehead. 2n = 56, 84.


Wet woods. From farther south.



CHENOPODIASTRUM (Family: Amaranthaceae)


CHENOPODIASTRUM MURALE (Linnaeus) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch - Sowbane. 2n = 18.


Waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa. [CHENOPODIUM MURALE Linnaeus]


Chenopodiastrum simplex (Torrey) S. Fuentes, Uotila & Borsch - Maple-leaved Goosefoot. 2n = 36.


Open, often rocky, rich woods, clearings, waste places. [Chenopodium gigantospermum Aellen; C. hybridum Linnaeus var. gigantospermum (Aellen) Rouleau; C. hybridum misapplied; C. simplex (Torrey) Rafinesque]



CHENOPODIUM (Family: Amaranthaceae)


CHENOPODIUM ALBUM Linnaeus - Lamb's-quarters. 2n = (18), (36), 54, (108).


Waste places, roadsides. From Europe. [C. ALBUM var. MISSOURIENSE (Aellen) Bassett & Crompton; C. LANCEOLATUM Muhlenberg ex Willdenow; C. PAGANUM misapplied]


Chenopodium berlandieri Moquin-Tandon var. boscianum (Moquin-Tandon) Wahl - . 2n = 36.


Beaches, waste places, roadsides. [C. boscianum Moquin-Tandon]


Chenopodium berlandieri Moquin-Tandon var. bushianum (Aellen) Cronquist - Village Goosefoot. 2n = 36.


Open woods, waste places, roadsides. [C. bushianum Aellen; C. paganum misapplied]


Chenopodium berlandieri Moquin-Tandon var. macrocalycium (Aellen) Cronquist - . 2n = 36.


Sea beaches. [C. macrocalycium Aellen]


CHENOPODIUM BERLANDIERI Moquin-Tandon var. ZSCHACKEI (Murr) Murr ex Graebner - . 2n = 36.


Roadsides. From farther west.


CHENOPODIUM BONUS-HENRICUS Linnaeus - Good King Henry. 2n = 36.


Waste places, roadsides. From Europe.


Chenopodium foggii Wahl - Fogg's Goosefoot. 2n = 18.


Rocky woods.


CHENOPODIUM INCANUM (S. Watson) A. Heller var. INCANUM - Mealy Goosefoot. 2n = 18.


Waste places. From farther west.


CHENOPODIUM LEPTOPHYLLUM (Moquin-Tandon) Nuttall ex S. Watson - . 2n = 18.


Sandy coastal areas. From farther west.


CHENOPODIUM PRATERICOLA Rydberg - Desert Goosefoot. 2n = 18.


Waste places, railroads. From farther west.


Chenopodium standleyanum Aellen - Woodland Goosefoot. 2n = 18.


Dry, often rocky woods. [C. hybridum Linnaeus var. standleyanum (Aellen) Fernald]


CHENOPODIUM STRICTUM Roth - Striped Goosefoot. 2n = (18), 36.


Weedy places. From Eurasia. [C. STRICTUM var. GLAUCOPHYLLUM (Aellen) Wahl]



CHIMAPHILA (Family: Ericaceae)


Chimaphila maculata (Linnaeus) Pursh - Spotted Wintergreen. 2n = 26.


Dry woods.


Chimaphila umbellata (Linnaeus) W.P.C. Barton subsp. umbellata - Pipsissewa. 2n = (18), 26.


Dry woods. [C. umbellata var. cisatlantica S.F. Blake]



CHIONANTHUS (Family: Oleaceae)


CHIONANTHUS VIRGINICUS Linnaeus - Fringe-tree. 2n = 46.


Roadsides, woodland margins. From farther west and south.



CHLORIS (Family: Poaceae)


CHLORIS CUCULLATA Bischoff - . 2n = 40.


Wool waste. From farther west.


CHLORIS GAYANA Kunth - Rhodes Grass. 2n = 20, (30), 40.


Fields, waste places. From Africa.


CHLORIS VERTICILLATA Nuttall - Windmill Grass. 2n = 40, (63).


Roadsides. From farther west.


CHLORIS VIRGATA Swartz - Feather Fingergrass. 2n = (14), 20, (30), (36), (40).


Wool waste. From tropical America.



CHORISPORA (Family: Brassicaceae)


CHORISPORA TENELLA (Pallas) de Candolle - Purple Mustard. 2n = 14, (28).


Roadsides, fields, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CHORIZANTHE (Family: Polygonaceae)


CHORIZANTHE PUNGENS Bentham var. PUNGENS - Monterey Spineflower. 2n = 40.


Wool waste. From California.



CHRYSOPSIS (Family: Asteraceae)


Chrysopsis mariana (Linnaeus) Elliott - Maryland Golden-aster. 2n = 8, 16, 18, 24, 32.


Dry, sandy fields, roadsides.



CHRYSOSPLENIUM (Family: Saxifragaceae)


Chrysosplenium americanum Schweinitz ex Hooker - American Golden Saxifrage. 2n = 18, 24.


Springs, swampy woods, cold, wet places.



CICER (Family: Fabaceae)


CICER ARIETINUM Linnaeus - Chick-pea. 2n = (14), 16, (24), (32), (33).


Waste places. From Turkey (and long in cultivation).



CICHORIUM (Family: Asteraceae)


CICHORIUM ENDIVIA Linnaeus - Endive. 2n = 18, (36).


Waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


CICHORIUM INTYBUS Linnaeus - Common Chicory. 2n = (16), 18, (20).


Fields, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CICUTA (Family: Apiaceae)


Cicuta bulbifera Linnaeus - . 2n = 22.


Swamps, marshes, shores, wet thickets.


Cicuta maculata Linnaeus var. maculata - Spotted Cowbane. 2n = 22.


Swamps, marshes, shores, meadows, low thickets, ditches.



CINNA (Family: Poaceae)


Cinna arundinacea Linnaeus - Common Woodreed. 2n = 28, 40.


Wet woods, swamps.


Cinna latifolia (Treviranus ex Göppert) Grisebach - Drooping Woodreed. 2n = 28, (56).


Wet woods, thickets, recent clearings.



CIRCAEA (Family: Onagraceae)


Circaea alpina Linnaeus subsp. alpina - Smaller Enchanter’s Nightshade. 2n = 22.


Swampy or springy woodlands, streambanks.


Circaea canadensis (Linnaeus) Hill - Common Enchanter’s Nightshade. 2n = 22.


Rich, moist woodlands. [C. lutetiana Linnaeus var. canadensis Linnaeus; C. quadrisulcata (Maximowicz) Franchet & Savatier var. canadensis (Linnaeus) H. Hara]

Circaea hybrid

Circaea X sterilis Boufford - .


[C. alpina Linnaeus X C. canadensis (Linnaeus) Hill; C. intermedia misapplied]



CIRSIUM (Family: Asteraceae)


Cirsium altissimum (Linnaeus) Sprengel - Roadside Thistle. 2n = 18, (19), (20).


Fields, thickets.


CIRSIUM ARVENSE (Linnaeus) Scopoli - Canada Thistle. 2n = 34, (36), (40), (51), (68).


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia. [C. ARVENSE var. INTEGRIFOLIUM Wimmer & Grabowski; C. ARVENSE var. MITE Wimmer & Grabowski; C. ARVENSE var. VESTITUM Wimmer & Grabowski]


Cirsium discolor (Muhlenberg ex Willdenow) Sprengel - Field Thistle. 2n = 20, (21), (23).


Moist thickets, damp woods, shores, meadows.


CIRSIUM FLODMANII (Rydberg) Arthur - 2n = 22, 24.


Dry pastures. From farther west.


Cirsium horridulum Michaux var. horridulum - Yellow Thistle. 2n = (31), 32, 34.


Fields, meadows, shores, roadsides, wood borders, usually in wet and often saline soil.


Cirsium muticum Michaux - Swamp Thistle. 2n = 20, 21, 22, 23, 30, 31.


Swamps, wet thickets, low, wet woods.


CIRSIUM OCHROCENTRUM A. Gray var. OCHROCENTRUM - 2n = 30, 31, 32, 34.


Pastures. From farther west.


CIRSIUM PALUSTRE (Linnaeus) Scopoli - 2n = 34.


Waste places. From Europe.


Cirsium pumilum Sprengel var. pumilum - Pasture Thistle. 2n = 30, (31), (32).


Fields, roadsides, dry, open soil.


CIRSIUM VULGARE (Savi) Tenore - Bull Thistle. 2n = (34), (ca. 60), 68, (102).


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CITRULLUS (Family: Cucurbitaceae)


CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHIS (Linnaeus) Schrader - Vine-of-Sodom. 2n = 22, (44).


Open, disturbed areas, sandy beaches. From the Mediterranean region, southwestern Asia.


CITRULLUS LANATUS (Thunberg) Matsumura & Nakai subsp. CITRULLUS LANATUS - Watermelon. 2n = 22, (44).


Waste places, freshwater shores. From southern Africa, most likely. [C. VULGARIS Schrader]



CLADIUM (Family: Cyperaceae)


Cladium mariscoides (Muhlenberg) Torrey - . 2n = 78.


Pond shores.



CLADRASTIS (Family: Fabaceae)


CLADRASTIS KENTUKEA (Dumont de Courset) Rudd - American Yellowwood. 2n = 28.


Rich woods, near parks or cemeteries. From farther south and west. [C. LUTEA (F. Michaux) K. Koch]



CLARKIA (Family: Onagraceae)


CLARKIA PULCHELLA Pursh - . 2n = 24.


Fields, meadows, waste places. From northwestern United States.


CLARKIA RHOMBOIDEA Douglas - . 2n = 24.


Wool waste. From western United States.



CLAYTONIA (Family: Portulacaceae)


Claytonia caroliniana Michaux - Broad-leaved Spring-beauty. 2n = 16, (17), (18), (24), (25), (26), (27), (36), (38).


Rich woods.


CLAYTONIA PERFOLIATA Donn ex Willdenow subsp. PERFOLIATA - Miner's-lettuce. 2n = 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 120.


Roadsides. From western North America. [MONTIA PERFOLIATA (Donn ex Willdenow) Howell]


Claytonia virginica Linnaeus - Eastern Spring-beauty. 2n = 12, 14-20, 22-30, 32, 34, 36-37, 48, 50, 58, 60, 64, 72, 85-87, 91, 93-94, ca. 96, 98, 102-105, 110, 121, 173, 177, ca. 191.


Rich, damp woods.



CLEMATIS (Family: Ranunculaceae)


CLEMATIS FLORIDA Thunberg - . 2n = 16.


Streamside woodlands. From China.


Clematis occidentalis (Hornemann) de Candolle var. occidentalis - Purple Clematis. 2n = 16.


Rocky, often calcareous, slopes and woods. [C. verticillaris de Candolle]


CLEMATIS RECTA Linnaeus - Ground Clematis. 2n = 16.


Rock walls. From Eurasia.


CLEMATIS TERNIFLORA de Candolle - Sweet Autumn Clematis. 2n = 16, 32, 36, 42, 48, 50, 64.


Roadsides, thickets. From eastern Asia. [C. DIOSCOREIFOLIA H. Léveillé & Vaniot; C. DIOSCOREIFOLIA var. ROBUSTA (Carrière) Rehder]


Clematis virginiana Linnaeus - Virgin's-bower. 2n = 16.


Moist thickets, low, moist, open ground, often disturbed.


CLEMATIS VITALBA Linnaeus - Old Man's Beard. 2n = 16.


Roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CLETHRA (Family: Clethraceae)


Clethra alnifolia Linnaeus - Sweet Pepperbush. 2n = (16), 32.


Swamps, swampy thickets, damp, sandy woods.



CLINOPODIUM (Family: Lamiaceae)


CLINOPODIUM ACINOS (Linnaeus) Kuntze - Mother-of-Thyme. 2n = 18.


Fields,roadsides, railroads, waste places, often in rocky sites. From Eurasia. [Satureja acinos (Linnaeus) Scheele]


Clinopodium vulgare Linnaeus - Wild Basil. 2n = 20, (36), (40).


Thickets, woodlands, clearings, fields, roadsides, ledges. [Satureja vulgaris (Linnaeus) Fritsch var. neogaea Fernald]



CLINTONIA (Family: Liliaceae)


Clintonia borealis (Aiton) Rafinesque - Yellow Clintonia. 2n = 28, (32).


Woods, usually moist, thickets.



COLCHICUM (Family: Colchicaceae)


COLCHICUM AUTUMNALE Linnaeus - Autumn Crocus. 2n = (24), (34), 36, 38, (42).


Meadows, fields. From Europe.



COLEATAENIA (Family: Poaceae)


Coleataenia longifolia (Torrey) Soreng subsp. longifolia - . 2n = ?


Shores, meadows, bogs. [Panicum longifolium Torrey; P. rigidulum Bosc ex Nees var. pubescens (Vasey) Lelong]


Coleataenia rigidula (Bosc ex Nees) LeBlond subsp. rigidula - . 2n = ?


Shores, meadows. [ P. agrostoides misapplied; Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees var. rigidulum]


Coleataenia stipitata (Nash) LeBlond - . 2n = ?


Swamps, shores, meadows. [Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees var. elongatum (Scribner) Lelong; P. stipitatum Nash]



COLLINSIA (Family: Plantaginaceae)


Collinsia parviflora Lindley - . 2n = 14, 28.


Base of slate cliff in dry ground.



COLLINSONIA (Family: Lamiaceae)


Collinsonia canadensis Linnaeus - Richweed. 2n = 50, 52.


Rich, moist woodlands.



COLLOMIA (Family: Polemoniaceae)


COLLOMIA LINEARIS Nuttall - . 2n = 16.


Railroads, meadows, waste places, wool waste. From farther west.



COLUTEA (Family: Fabaceae)


COLUTEA ARBORESCENS Linnaeus - Bladder-senna. 2n = (12), 16.


Roadsides, railroads, waste areas, hillsides. From Europe, northern Africa.



COMANDRA (Family: Santalaceae)


Comandra umbellata (Linnaeus) Nuttall subsp. umbellata - Bastard Toadflax. 2n = 26, 28.


Dry, usually sterile, open woodlands and clearings. [C. richardsiana Fernald]




COMARUM (Family: Rosaceae)


Comarum palustre Linnaeus - Marsh Cinquefoil. 2n = (28), (35), (40), 42, (64).


Pond and lake shores, meadows, marshes, bogs, swamps. [Potentilla palustris (Linnaeus) Scopoli var. palustris; P. palustris var. villosa (Persoon) Lehmann]



COMMELINA (Family: Commelinaceae)


COMMELINA COMMUNIS Linnaeus - Asiatic Dayflower. 2n = 16, 22, 28, 32, 36, 40, 44, 48, 62, 84, 86, 88, 90.


Waste places, roadsides, disturbed moist soil in shade. From eastern Asia. [C. COMMUNIS var. LUDENS (Miquel) C.B. Clarke]


COMMELINA DIFFUSA Burman (son) - Creeping Dayflower. 2n = (18), (28), 30, (42), (56), (58), (60), (72), (90).


Waste places. From the Old World.



COMPTONIA (Family: Myricaceae)


Comptonia peregrina (Linnaeus) J.M. Coulter - Sweet-fern. 2n = 32.


Dry, sterile fields, clearings, open woods, usually in acidic, sandy or rocky soil.



CONIOSELINUM (Family: Apiaceae)


Conioselinum chinense (Linnaeus) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenburg - Hemlock-parsley. 2n = 44.


River shores, swamps, wet woodlands, meadows, damp thickets.



CONIUM (Family: Apiaceae)


CONIUM MACULATUM Linnaeus - Poison Hemlock. 2n = (16), 22.


Waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CONOPHOLIS (Family: Orobanchaceae)


Conopholis americana (Fernald) (Linnaeus) Wallroth - Squawroot. 2n = 40.


Rich woods, mostly under oaks, parasitic on tree roots.



CONRINGIA (Family: Brassicaceae)


CONRINGIA ORIENTALIS (Linnaeus) C. Presl - Hare’s-ear Mustard. 2n = 14, (28).


Roadsides, fields, waste places. From Eurasia.



CONSOLIDA (Family: Ranunculaceae)


CONSOLIDA AJACIS (Linnaeus) Schur - Rocket Larkspur. 2n = 16, (24), (26).


Rubbish heaps, waste ground, old fields. From Europe and Africa. [C. ambigua misapplied; Delphinium ajacis Linnaeus]


CONSOLIDA ORIENTALIS Schrödinger - Eastern Larkspur. 2n = 16.


Roadsides. From Eurasia and Africa.



CONVALLARIA (Family: Asparagaceae)


CONVALLARIA MAJALIS Linnaeus var. MAJALIS - European Lily-of-the-Valley. 2n = (32), (36), 38.


Roadsides, old house sites, thickets, open woods. From Europe.



CONVOLVULUS (Family: Convolvulaceae)


CONVOLVULUS ARVENSIS Linnaeus - Field Bindweed. 2n = (24), (32), 48, 50, (78).


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



COPTIDIUM (Family: Ranunculaceae)


Coptidium lapponicum (Linnaeus) Gandoger ex Rydberg - Lapland Buttercup. 2n = 16.


Wet moss, wet woods. [Ranunculus lapponicus Linnaeus]



COPTIS (Family: Ranunculaceae)


Coptis trifolia (Linnaeus) Salisbury - Goldthread. 2n = 18.


Mossy woods, swamps. [C. groenlandica (Oeder) Fernald]



CORALLORHIZA (Family: Orchidaceae)


Corallorhiza maculata (Rafinesque) Rafinesque - Spotted Coral-root. 2n = 42.


Dry to moist woods.


Corallorhiza odontorhiza (Willdenow) Poiret - Autumn Coral-root. 2n = ?


Rich, dry woods, in basic soil.


Corallorhiza trifida Châtelain - Early Coral-root. 2n = (38), (40), 42, (48).


Rich, wet woods, swamps with Thuja. [C. trifida var. verna (Nuttall) Fernald]



COREMA (Family: Ericaceae)


Corema conradii (Torrey) Torrey - Broom-crowberry. 2n = 26.


Coastal, sandy or rocky soils, pine barrens, exposed, rocky ledges.



COREOPSIS (Family: Asteraceae)


COREOPSIS BASALIS (A. Dietrich) S.F. Blake - 2n = (20), (22), (24), 26.


Roadsides, waste places. From farther south. [C. DRUMMONDII Torrey & A. Gray]


COREOPSIS GRANDIFLORA Hogg ex Sweet - 2n = 20, 24, 26, 28, 78.


Fields, roadsides, waste places. From farther south and west. [C. GRANDIFLORA var. HARVEYANA (A. Gray) Sherff]


COREOPSIS LANCEOLATA Linnaeus - Sand Coreopsis. 2n = (20), (24), 26, (30), (48).


Dry, sandy fields, roadsides. From farther south and west. [C. LANCEOLATA var. VILLOSA Michaux]


COREOPSIS MAJOR Walter - Wood Tickseed. 2n = (ca. 24), 26, (78), (104).


Waste places. From farther south. [C. MAJOR var. STELLATA (Nuttall) B.L. Robinson]


COREOPSIS PUBESCENS Elliott - Star Tickseed. 2n = 26, (28).


Fields, waste places. From farther south. [C. PUBESCENS var. ROBUSTA A. Gray ex Eames]


Coreopsis rosea Nuttall - Pink Tickseed. 2n = 26.


Sandy, pond shores.


COREOPSIS TINCTORIA Nuttall - Garden Tickseed. 2n = 24, (26).


Waste places, roadsides, wetland margins. From farther west and south.


COREOPSIS TRIPTERIS Linnaeus - Tall Coreopsis. 2n = 26.


Roadsides. From farther west and south.


COREOPSIS VERTICILLATA Linnaeus - . 2n = 26, 52.


Roadsides. From farther south.



CORIANDRUM (Family: Apiaceae)


CORIANDRUM SATIVUM Linnaeus - Coriander. 2n = 22, (23), (24), (25), (28), (44).


Waste places, sandy seashores. Probably from the Mediterranean region.



CORNUS (Family: Cornaceae)


Cornus alternifolia Linnaeus (son) - Pagoda Dogwood. 2n = 20, (22).


Rich, dry, open woodlands, thickets.


Cornus amomum Miller - Silky Dogwood. 2n = 22.


Wet thickets, shores, meadows, swamps, marshes.


Cornus canadensis Linnaeus - Bunchberry. 2n = 22, 44.


Acidic, usually moist, woodlands, swamps.


Cornus florida Linnaeus - Flowering Dogwood. 2n = 22.


Rich, acidic woodlands.


CORNUS KOUSA F. Buerger ex Hance - Japanese Dogwood. 2n = 18, 22.


Mixed oodlands. From eastern Asia.


Cornus obliqua Rafinesque - Pale Dogwood. 2n = ?


Wet thickets, swamps, woodlands, roadsides. [C. amomum Miller var. schuetzeana (C.A. Meyer) Rickett]


Cornus racemosa Lamarck - Gray Dogwood. 2n = 22.


Thickets, woodlands, roadsides, streambanks, swamps.


Cornus rugosa Lamarck - Round-leaved Dogwood. 2n = 22.


Woodlands, thickets, rocky slopes, usually in rich soil.


CORNUS SANGUINEA Linnaeus - Blood-twig Dogwood. 2n = 22.


Railroads, damp thickets. From Eurasia.


Cornus sericea Linnaeus - Red-osier Dogwood. 2n = 22.


Streambanks, wet thickets, shores, wet or swampy woodlands, meadows, wet roadsides. [C. stolonifera Michaux]


Cornus hybrids

Cornus X arnoldiana Rehder - .


[C. amomum Miller X C. racemosa Lamarck]


Cornus X slavinii Rehder - .


[C. rugosa Lamarck X C. stolonifera Michaux]



CORONILLA (Family: Fabaceae)


CORONILLA SCORPIOIDES (Linnaeus) W.D.J. Koch - Annual Scorpion Vetch. 2n = 12.


Roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CORYDALIS (Family: Papaveraceae)


Corydalis aurea Willdenow subsp. aurea - Golden Corydalis. 2n = 16.


Calcareous rocky slopes, sandy or gravelly shores.


Corydalis flavula (Rafinesque) de Candolle - Yellow Fumewort. 2n = 16.


Rocky slopes, open woods, in moist soil.


CORYDALIS SOLIDA (Linnaeus) Clairville - Bird-in-a-bush. 2n = (10), 16, (24), (32).


Waste areas. From Eurasia. [C. BULBOSA - rejected name]



CORYLUS (Family: Betulaceae)


Corylus americana Marshall - American Hazelnut. 2n = 22, (28).


Woodland borders, thickets, sandy banks, open woods, roadsides.


Corylus cornuta Marshall subsp. cornuta - Beaked Hazelnut. 2n = 22, 28.


Woodland borders, thickets, sandy banks, open woods, roadsides.


CORYLUS HETEROPHYLLA Fischer ex Trautvetter - Siberian Hazelnut. 2n = 22, 28.


From eastern Asia.



CORYNEPHORUS (Family: Poaceae)


CORYNEPHORUS CANESCENS (Linnaeus) P. Beauvois - Gray Hairgrass. 2n = 14.


Sandy fields, roadsides, barrens. From Europe.



COSMOS (Family: Poaceae)


COSMOS BIPINNATUS Cavanilles - Garden Cosmos. 2n = (22), 24.


Waste places, roadsides. From Mexico and the southwestern United States.


COSMOS PARVIFLORUS (Jacquin) Persoon - 2n = 24.


Waste places, roadsides. From the southwestern United States.


COSMOS SULPHUREUS Cavanilles - Orange Cosmos. 2n = 24, (26), (48).


Waste places. From Mexico.



COTA (Family: Asteraceae)


COTA TINCTORIA (Linnaeus) J. Gay - Yellow Chamomile. 2n = 18.


Fields, waste places, roadsides. From Eurasia. [ANTHEMIS TINCTORIA Linnaeus]



COTINUS (Family: Anacardiaceae)


COTINUS COGGYGRIA Scopoli - Smoketree. 2n = 30.


Waste places. From Eurasia.



COTONEASTER (Family: Rosaceae)


COTONEASTER DIVARICATUS Rehder & E.H. Wilson - 2n = ?


Shady thickets, epiphyte in fork of maple tree. From China.



COTULA (Family: Asteraceae)


COTULA CORONOPIFOLIA Linnaeus - Brass-buttons. 2n = 20, (40).


Ballast waste. From South Africa.



CRATAEGUS (Family: Rosaceae)


Due to the significant diversity of taxonomic treatments for this genus over the years and the complicated reproductive mechanisms known to occur (hybridization, polyploidy, aneuploidy, apomixis), the listing here largely follows that of Gleason and Cronquist (1991) which groups many species considered separate by others. The works of Flora of North America (2014), Phipps and Muniyamma (1980), Kruschke (1965) have been used to place some names in synonymy. Certain obscure taxa collected only a few times in limited locations are listed here without mapping. The reforestation of New England since the early 20th century has greatly reduced the open habitat and fencerows preferred by members of this genus, making it likely that obscure taxa and many hybrids will never be seen again.

Crataegus baccata Sargent —- obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Worcester County, Massachusetts.


Crataegus brainerdii Sargent - . 2n = ?


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. brainerdii var. asperifolia (Sargent) Eggleston; C. brainerdii var. cyclophylla (Sargent) E.J. Palmer; C. brainerdii var. egglestonii (Sargent) B.L. Robinson; C. brainerdii var. scabrida Eggleston; C. asperifolia Sargent; C. cyclophylla Sargent; C. egglestonii Sargent; C. scabrida Sargent var. scabrida; C. scabrida var. asperifolia (Sargent) Kruschke; C. scabrida var. cyclophylla (Sargent) Kruschke; C. scabrida var. egglestonii (Sargent) Kruschke]


Crataegus bristolensis Sargent —- obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Bristol County, Massachusetts.


Crataegus calpodendron (Ehrhart) Medikus - Pear Hawthorn. 2n = 34, 51.


Thickets, open woods, woodland margins.


Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe - Round-leaved Hawthorn. 2n = 34, 68.


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. chrysocarpa var. blanchardii (Sargent) J.B. Phipps; C. chrysocarpa var. faxonii (Sargent) Eggleston; C. chrysocarpa var. phoenicea E.J. Palmer ex J.B. Phipps - illegitimate name; C. chrysocarpa var. praecox (Sargent) J.B. Phipps; C. brunetiana Sargent var. brunetiana; C. brunetiana var. fernaldii (Sargent) E.J. Palmer; C. dodgei Ashe; C. faxonii Sargent var. faxonii; C. faxonii var. praetermissa (Sargent) E.J. Palmer; C. fernaldii Sargent; C. flavida Sargent; C. irrasa Sargent var. irrasa; C. irrasa var. blanchardii (Sargent) Eggleston; C. jonesiae Sargent; C. keepii Sargent; C. laurentiana Sargent var. brunetiana (Sargent) Kruschke; C. lumaria Ashe; C. oakesiana Eggleston; C. praecoqua Sargent – illegitimate name; C. rotundata Sargent; C. rotundifolia misapplied]


Crataegus coccinea Linnaeus - Scarlet Hawthorn. 2n = 34, 68.


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. coccinea var. pringlei (Sargent) J.A. Macklin & J.B. Phipps; C. anomala Sargent; C. corusca misapplied; C. eamesii Sargent; C. holmesiana Ashe var. holmesiana; C. holmesiana var. magniflora (Sargent) E.J. Palmer; C. holmesiana var. villipes Ashe; C. magniflora Sargent; C. pedicellata Sargent var. pedicellata; C. pedicellata var. robesoniana (Sargent) E. J. Palmer; C. polita Sargent; C. pringlei Sargent var. pringlei; C. pringlei var. exclusa (Sargent) Eggleston; C. pringlei var. lobulata (Sargent) Eggleston; C. sejuncta Sargent]


Crataegus coccinioides Ashe - Kansas Hawthorn. 2n = 51.


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. dilatata Sargent]


Crataegus crus-galli Linnaeus - Cockspur Hawthorn. 2n = 24, 34, 51, 64, 68.


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, early successional woodlands. roadsides. [C. crus-galli var. exigua (Sargent) Eggleston; C. crus-galli var. pyracanthifolia Aiton; C. persimilis Sargent; C. schizophylla Eggleston]


Crataegus emersoniana Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Bristol County, Massachusetts.


Crataegus forbesae Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Worcester County, Massachusetts and New London County, Connecticut.


Crataegus fulgens Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Fairfield County, Connecticut.


Crataegus hystricina Ashe — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Fairfield County, Connecticut and in New York state.


Crataegus intricata Lange - Biltmore Hawthorn. 2n = ca. 51, 64.


Woodland openings and margins, thickets, fields, roadsides. [C. intricata var. boyntonii (Beadle) Kruschke; C. intricata var. straminea (Beadle) E.J. Palmer; C. biltmoreana Beadle var. biltmoreana; C. biltmoreana var. stonei (Sargent) Kruschke; C. bissellii Sargent; C. boyntonii Beadle; C. foetida Ashe; C. modesta Sargent; C. stonei Sargent]


Crataegus macrosperma Ashe - Variable Hawthorn. 2n = 51, 68, 72.


Open woods, early successional woods, thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. macrosperma var. acutiloba (Sargent) Eggleston; C. macrosperma var. demissa (Sargent) Eggleston; C. macrosperma var. matura (Sargent) Eggleston; C. macrosperma var. pastorum (Sargent) Eggleston; C. macrosperma var. pentandra (Sargent) Eggleston; C. macrosperma var. roanensis (Ashe) E.J. Palmer; C. basilica Beadle; C. beckwithae Sargent; C. brumalis Ashe; C. comata Sargent; C. compta Sargent; C. diffusa Sargent; C. edsonii Sargent; C. flabellata (Bosc ex Spach) K. Koch var. flabellata; C. flabellata var. grayana (Eggleston) E.J. Palmer; C. fluviatilis Sargent; C. glaucophylla Sargent; C. grayana Eggleston; C. iracunda Beadle var. iracunda; C. iracunda var. brumalis (Ashe) Kruschke; C. iracunda var. diffusa (Sargent) Kruschke; C. lemingtonensis Sargent; C. levis Sargent; C. matura Sargent; C. pastorum Sargent; C. populnea Ashe; C. randiana Sargent; C. roanensis Ashe; C. robbinsiana Sargent; C. schuettei Ashe var. schuettei; C. schuettei Ashe var. basilica (Beadle) J.B. Phipps]


Crataegus mollis (Torrey & A. Gray) Scheele - Downy Hawthorn. 2n = 34, 48, 68.


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. arnoldiana Sargent; C. champlainensis Sargent; C. pedicellata Sargent var. albicans (Ashe) E.J. Palmer; C. submollis Sargent]


CRATAEGUS MONOGYNA Jacquin - English Hawthorn. 2n = 34, (51).


Roadsides, woodland margins, open, moist woods, fields. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


Crataegus napaea Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Litchfield County, Connecticut.


Crataegus neolondinensis Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in New London County, Connecticut.


Crataegus paddockiae Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Caledonia and Essex Counties, Vermont.


CRATAEGUS PHAENOPYRUM (Linnaeus (son)) Medikus - Washington Hawthorn. 2n = 72.


Thickets, roadsides. From farther south. [C. cordata (Miller) Aiton]


Crataegus pruinosa (H.L. Wendland) K. Koch - Frosted Hawthorn. 2n = 51, 68, 72.


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. pruinosa var. dissona (Sargent) Eggleston; C. pruinosa var. latisepala (Ashe) Eggleston; C. pruinosa var. porteri (Britton) Eggleston; C. bellula Sargent; C. cognata Sargent; C. conjuncta Sargent; C. deltoides Ashe; C. dissona Sargent var. dissona; C. dissona var. bellula (Sargent) Kruschke; C. fusca Sargent; C. incisa Sargent; C. jesupii Sargent; C. littoralis Sargent; C. pequotorum Sargent; C. porteri Britton var. caerulescens (Sargent) E.J. Palmer; C. rugosa Ashe]


Crataegus punctata Jacquin - 2n = 34.


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. punctata var. aurea Aiton; C. suborbiculata Sargent; C. tomentosa Linnaeus var. punctata (Jacquin) A. Gray]


Crataegus quinebaugensis Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in New London County, Connecticut.


Crataegus stratfordensis Sargent—obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Fairfield County, Connecticut.


Crataegus succulenta Schrader ex Link - Long-spined Hawthorn. 2n = 34, 51.


Thickets, fields, woodland margins, roadsides. [C. succulenta var. macracantha (Loddiges ex Loudon) Eggleston; C. succulenta var. neofluvialis (Ashe) E.J. Palmer; C. succulenta var. pisifera (Sargent) Kruschke; C. ferentaria Sargent; C. fertilis Sargent; C. florifera Sargent var. shirleyensis (Sargent) Kruschke; C. macracantha Loddiges ex Loudon var. macracantha; C. macracantha var. occidentalis (Britton) Eggleston; C. membranacea Sargent; C. pisifera Sargent; C. shirleyensis Sargent]


Crataegus thayeri Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections in Middlesex and Worcester Counties, Massachusetts.


Crataegus umbratilis Sargent — obscure taxon known only from historic collections at one site in Litchfield County, Connecticut, and one town in Pennsylvania.

Crataegus hybrids

Crataegus X haemacarpa Ashe (pro species) - .


[C. macrosperma Ashe X C. pruinosa (H.L. Wendland) K. Koch; C. media Sargent]


Crataegus X hudsonica Sargent (pro species) - .


[C. pruinosa (H.L. Wendland) K. Koch X C. punctata Jacquin; ?C. bicknellii (Eggleston) Eggleston; ?C. chrysocarpa Ashe var. bicknellii (Eggleston) E.J. Palmer]


Crataegus X ideae Sargent (pro species) - .


[C. brainerdii Sargent X C. chrysocarpa Ashe]


Crataegus X kennedyi Sargent (pro species) - .


[C. brainerdii Sargent X C. pruinosa (H.L. Wendland) K. Koch]


Crataegus X lucorum Sargent (pro species) - .


[C. coccinea Linnaeus X C. macrosperma Ashe; C. fretalis Sargent; C. insolens Sargent; C. knieskerniana Sargent]


Crataegus X pilosa Sargent (pro species) - .


[C. intricata Lange X C. pruinosa (H.L. Wendland) K. Koch]


Crataegus X spatiosa Sargent (pro species) - .


[C. pruinosa (H.L. Wendland) K. Koch X C. succulenta Schrader ex Link; C. chadsfordiana Sargent; C. handyae Sargent]


Crataegus X websteri Sargent (pro species) - .


[C. brainerdii Sargent X C. calpodendron (Ehrhart) Medikus]



CREPIDOMANES (Family: Hymenophyllaceae)


Crepidomanes intricatum (Farrar) Ebihara & weakley - Appalachian Bristle Fern - . 2n = ?


Sheltered, moist, noncalcareous rock crevices and other protected places in deep ravines and gorges. Known only as gametophytes. [Trichomanes intricatum Farrar]



CREPIS (Family: Asteraceae)


CREPIS BIENNIS Linnaeus - Rough Hawk’s-beard. 2n = (31), (36), (39), 40.


Fields. From Europe.


CREPIS CAPILLARIS (Linnaeus) Wallroth - Smooth Hawk’s-beard. 2n = 6, (7), (8), (9), (10), (12), (24).


Fields, waste places, roadsides. From Europe. [C. VIRENS Linnaeus - illegitimate name]


CREPIS FOETIDA Linnaeus - Stinking Hawk’s-beard. 2n = (8), 10.


Wool waste. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


CREPIS NICAEENSIS Balbis - French Hawk’s-beard. 2n = 8.


Waste places. From Europe.


CREPIS SETOSA Haller (son) - Bristly Hawk’s-beard. 2n = 8, (16), (28).


Fields. From Eurasia.


CREPIS TECTORUM Linnaeus - 2n = 8.


Waste places, fields, roadsides, meadows, open, sandy, disturbed areas. From Eurasia.


CREPIS VESICARIA Linnaeus - Beaked Hawk’s-beard. 2n = 8, 16.


Fields. From Europe, northern Africa. [C. VESICARIA subsp. TARAXACIFOLIA (Thuiller) Thellung]



CROCANTHEMUM (Family: Cistaceae)


Crocanthemum bicknellii (Fernald) Janchen - Hoary Frostweed. 2n = 20.


Dry, sandy soil in the open, roadsides, open woods. [Helianthemum bicknellii Fernald]


Crocanthemum canadense (Linnaeus) Britton - . 2n = 20.


Dry, sandy or rocky soil in the open, roadsides, open woods, ledges. [Helianthemum canadense (Linnaeus) Michaux var. canadense; H. canadense var. sabulonum Fernald]


Crocanthemum dumosum E.P. Bicknell - . 2n = ?


Dry, sandy soil in the open, open woods. [Helianthemum dumosum (E.P. Bicknell) Fernald]


Crocanthemum propinquum (E.P. Bicknell ex Britton) E.P. Bicknell - . 2n = ?


Dry, sandy soil in the open, roadsides, open woods, fields. [Helianthemum propinquum E.P. Bicknell ex Britton]



CROCUS (Family: Iridaceae)


CROCUS VERNUS (Linnaeus) J. Hill - Dutch Crocus. 2n = 8, (10), (12), 16, (18), (19), (20), (22), (23), (32).


Grasslands. From Europe.



CROTALARIA (Family: Fabaceae)


Crotalaria sagittalis Linnaeus var. sagittalis - Common Rattlebox. 2n = 32.


Sandy or gravelly, often dry, open soil, shores, waste areas, railroads, roadsides.



CROTON (Family: Euphorbiaceae)


CROTON CAPITATUS Michaux - Hogwort. 2n = 20.


Waste places. From farther west and south.


CROTON GLANDULOSUS Linnaeus var. SEPTENTRIONALIS Müller Argoviensis - . 2n = ?


Roadsides. From farther south and west.


CROTON MICHAUXII G.L. Webster var. ELLIPTICUS (Willdenow) B.W. van Ee & P.E. Berry - . 2n = ?


Old fields, dry, sandy wastes. From farther south and west. [C. WILLDENOWII G.L. Webster; CROTONOPSIS ELLIPTICA Willdenow]


CROTON TEXENSIS (Klotzsch) Müller Argoviensis - . 2n = 28.


Waste places. From farther west.



CRUPINA (Family: Asteraceae)


CRUPINA VULGARIS Persoon ex Cassini - Bearded Creeper. 2n = (28), 30.


Waste places. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CRYPSIS (Family: Poaceae)


CRYPSIS SCHOENOIDES (Linnaeus) Lamarck - . 2n = (32), 36.


Waste places. From Europe. [HELEOCHLOA SCHOENOIDES (Linnaeus) Host ex Roemer]



CRYPTANTHA (Family: Boraginaceae)


CRYPTANTHA AMBIGUA (A. Gray) Greene - . 2n = ?


Wool waste. From western North America.


CRYPTANTHA INTERMEDIA (A. Gray) Greene - . 2n = 44.


Wool waste. From western North America.



CRYPTOGRAMMA (Family: Pteridaceae)


Cryptogramma stelleri (S.G. Gmelin) Prantl - Slender Cliff-brake. 2n = (56), (58), 60.


Shaded, moist, calcareous cliffs and rock ledges, typically in coniferous woods.



CRYPTOTAENIA (Family: Apiaceae)


Cryptotaenia canadensis (Linnaeus) de Candolle - Honewort. 2n = 20, 22.


Rich woodlands and thickets.



CUCUMIS (Family: Cucurbitaceae)


CUCUMIS ANGURIA Linnaeus var. ANGURIA - Bur Gherkin. 2n = (22), 24.


Wool waste. From central and southern Africa.


CUCUMIS MELO Linnaeus subsp. MELO - Cantaloupe. 2n = (20), (22), 24, (48).


Waste places. From southwestern Asia.


CUCUMIS MELO Linnaeus subsp. AGRESTIS (Naudin) Pangolo - . 2n = 24.


Moist, sandy, waste places. From Asia, probably.


CUCUMIS MYRIOCARPUS Naudin - Paddy Melon. 2n = 24.


Waste places. From southern Africa.


CUCUMIS SATIVUS Linnaeus var. SATIVUS - Cucumber. 2n = 14, (28).


Waste places. From India.



CUCURBITA (Family: Cucurbitaceae)


CUCURBITA MAXIMA Duchesne - Winter Squash. 2n = (24), 40, (48).


Waste places. From South America.


CUCURBITA PEPO Linnaeus subsp. PEPO - Pumpkin. 2n = (10), (22), (24), (28), 40, (80).


Waste places, roadsides, sandy beaches. From Mexico, South America. [C. PEPO var. MELOPEPO (Linnaeus) Alefeld; C. PEPO var. OVIFERA (Linnaeus) Alefeld]



CUPHEA (Family: Lythraceae)


CUPHEA PROCUMBENS Ortega - . 2n = 18.


Pastures. From southern Mexico.


Cuphea viscosissima Jaquin - Blue Waxweed. 2n = 12.


Fields, roadsides. [C. petiolata Pohl ex Koehne]



CUSCUTA (Family: Convolvulaceae)


CUSCUTA APPROXIMATA Babington - Alfalfa Dodder. 2n = 28.


Damp meadows, typically parasitic on Medicago and Trifolium. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


CUSCUTA CAMPESTRIS Yuncker - . 2n = (28), 56.


Street gutter on Persicaria, brooksides on Impatiens. From farther west and south, Caribbean.


Cuscuta cephalanthi Engelmann - Buttonbush Dodder. 2n = 60.


Alluvial woodlands, riverbank thickets, Sphagnum bogs, marsh margins, parasitic on coarse herbs and shrubs.


Cuscuta compacta Jussieu ex Choisy var. compacta - . 2n = 30.


Low woods and thickets, parasitic on various shrubs and coarse herbs.


Cuscuta coryli Engelmann - Hazel Dodder. 2n = 30.


Dry, gravelly and sandy beaches, dryish, sandy, old fields, moist woods, pond margins, parasitic on various herbs and shrubs, especially Asteraceae such as Euthamia, Eurybia, Solidago and Symphyotrichum.


CUSCUTA EPILINUM Weihe - Flax Dodder. 2n = 42.


Parasitic on flax (Linum). From western and central Asia.


CUSCUTA EPITHYMUM (Linnaeus) Linnaeus - Clover Dodder. 2n = 14, (16), (28), (30), (32).


Parasitic on herbs, especially Medicago, Trifolium and other herbaceous Fabaceae. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


CUSCUTA EUROPAEA Linnaeus - Greater Dodder. 2n = 14.


Hedge at field margin, low thicket, parasitic on Solidago and various other herbs and shrubs. From Eurasia, northern Africa.


Cuscuta gronovii Willdenow ex Roemer & Schultes var. gronovii - Common Dodder. 2n = 60.


Low grounds, parasitic on many coarse herbs and shrubs. [C. gronovii var. latiflora Engelmann]


CUSCUTA INDECORA Choisy var. INDECORA - . 2n = 30.


Dry, sandy or gravelly shores, parasitic on various herbs and shrubs, especially Asteraceae (such as Euthamia, Solidago and Symphyotrichum). From farther west and south.


Cuscuta pentagona Engelmann - . 2n = ca. 44, ca. 56.


Dry, open soil, parasitic on many herbs.


Cuscuta polygonorum Engelmann - Smartweed Dodder. 2n = ?


Pond shores, river thickets, parasitic on Polygonum, Lycopus and other herbs. [C. obtusiflora sensu Gray’s Manual 7th edition]



CYCLACHAENA (Family: Asteraceae)


CYCLACHAENA XANTHIIFOLIA (Nuttall) Fresenius - Giant Sumpweed. 2n = (28), 36.


Waste places, fields. From farther west. [IVA XANTHIIFOLIA Nuttall]



CYCLOLOMA (Family: Chenopodiaceae)


CYCLOLOMA ATRIPLICIFOLIUM (Sprengel) J.M. Coulter - . 2n = 32, 36.


Roadsides, waste places, usually sandy. From farther west.



CYDONIA (Family: Rosaceae)


CYDONIA OBLONGA Miller - Quince. 2n = 34.


Roadsides, railroads. From central and western Asia.



CYMBALARIA (Family: Plantaginaceae)


CYMBALARIA MURALIS G. Gaertner, B. Meyer, & Scherbius - Kenilworth Ivy. 2n = 14.


Stone walls, waste places, dry, rocky ground, railroads, river shores. From Europe.



CYNODON (Family: Poaceae)


CYNODON DACTYLON (Linnaeus) Persoon - Bermuda Grass. 2n = 18, (27), 30, 36, 40, (54).


Waste places. From the Middle East. [C. ARISTIGLUMIS Caro & E.A. Sánchez]



CYNOGLOSSUM (Family: Boraginaceae)


CYNOGLOSSUM AMABILE Stapf & J.R. Drummond - Chinese Hound’s-tongue. 2n = 24.


Roadsides, waste places. From China.


CYNOGLOSSUM MICROGLOCHIN Bentham - . 2n = 24.


Waste places. From central and southern Asia.


CYNOGLOSSUM OFFICINALE Linnaeus - Common Hound’s-tongue. 2n = 24, (48).


Dry fields, roadsides, waste places. From Eurasia.


Cynoglossum virginianum Linnaeus var. virginianum - Wild Comfrey. 2n = ?


Open, deciduous or mixed woodlands.


Cynoglossum virginianum Linnaeus var. boreale (Fernald) Cooperrider - Northern Wild Comfrey. 2n = 24.


Rich, open woodlands. [C. boreale Fernald]



CYNOGLOTTIS (Family: Boraginaceae)


CYNOGLOTTIS BARRELIERI (Allioni) Vural & Kit Tan - False Alkanet. 2n = 16, 18, 24, 36.


Gravelly roadsides. From Europe. [ANCHUSA BARRELIERI Vitman]



CYNOSURUS (Family: Poaceae)


CYNOSURUS CRISTATUS Linnaeus - . 2n = 14.


Roadsides. From Europe.


CYNOSURUS ECHINATUS Linnaeus - . 2n = 14, (16).


Roadsides. From Eurasia, northern Africa.



CYPERUS (Family: Cyperaceae)


Cyperus acuminatus Torrey & Hooker - . 2n = ?


Shores, often sandy.


Cyperus bipartitus Torrey - . 2n = 54.


Shores and other wet, disturbed areas. [C. rivularis Kunth]


Cyperus dentatus Torrey Bulblet Sedge - . 2n = 34.


Sandy shorelines.


Cyperus diandrus Torrey - . 2n = ?


Shores.


Cyperus echinatus (Linnaeus) Alph. Wood Teasel Sedge - . 2n = ?


Open, moist, disturbed sites in well-drained soil. [C. ovularis (Michaux) Torrey]


Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhlenberg - . 2n = 96.


Shores.


Cyperus esculentus Linnaeus var. leptostachyus Boeckeler Yellow Nut-grass - . 2n = ?


Damp, sandy disturbed soil, shores, often in cultivated ground.


Cyperus filicinus Vahl Beach Sedge - . 2n = ?


Borders of tidal marshes, dune hollows, occasionally fresh water pond shores, roadsides and ditches.


CYPERUS FLAVESCENS Linnaeus - . 2n = 50, 70.


Damp soils, often disturbed. From farther south and west. [C. FLAVESCENS var. POIFORMIS (Pursh) Fernald]


CYPERUS FUSCUS Linnaeus Brown Galingale - . 2n = 36, (48), 72


Damp, sandy disturbed soils. From Eurasia.


Cyperus grayi Torrey - . 2n = 166.


Dry sands of coastal plain.


Cyperus houghtonii Torrey - . 2n = 78, 168, 170, 172.


Sandy soil, usually dry.


CYPERUS IRIA Linnaeus - . 2n = 16, 72, 104, 108, 112, 116, 128.


Roadsides, clearings and other disturbed soils. From Eurasia.


Cyperus lupulinus (Sprengel) Marcks subsp. lupulinus - . 2n = 146, 166.


Sandy or gravelly soil, usually dry. [C. filiculmis Vahl var. filiculmis]


Cyperus lupulinus (Sprengel) Marcks subsp. macilentus (Fernald) Marcks - . 2n = 166.


Open, usually sandy soil. [C. filiculmis Vahl var. macilentus Fernald]


CYPERUS MICROIRIA Steudel - . 2n = 104.


Fallow fields, waste places, disturbed soils. From Asia. [C. amuricus misapplied]


Cyperus odoratus Linnaeus - . 2n = ?


Tidal marshes, coastal meadows. [C. engelmannii Steudel; C. ferruginescens Boeckeler]


Cyperus polystachyos Rottbøll - . 2n = 96.


Sandy pond shores. [C. polystachyos var. texensis (Torrey) Fernald]


Cyperus pseudovegetus Steudel - . 2n = ?


Damp places.


Cyperus retrorsus Chapman - . 2n = ?


Open, sandy soil.


CYPERUS SCHWEINITZII Torrey - . 2n = 80, 166.


Sandy soil of shores, dunes, and open woods. From farther west.


Cyperus squarrosus Linnaeus Bristly Sedge - . 2n = ca. 94, 98, 108.


Damp sands, silts, alluvium, and disturbed soils. [C. aristatus Rottbøll - illegitimate name; C. inflexus Muhlenberg]


Cyperus strigosus Linnaeus - . 2n = ?


Shores, meadows, damp thickets and disturbed soils. [C. strigosus var. robustior Kunth]


Cyperus hybrids

Cyperus X mesochorus Geise - .


[C. lupulinus (Sprengel) Marcks X C. SCHWEINITZII Torrey]


Cyperus X weatherbianus Fernald - .


[C. dentatus Torrey X Rhynchospora capitellata (Michaux) Vahl]



CYPRIPEDIUM (Family: Orchidaceae)


Cypripedium acaule Aiton - Pink Lady's-slipper. 2n = 20.


Dry woods, acid soils.


Cypripedium arietinum R. Brown - Ram's-head Lady's-slipper. 2n = 20.


Rich, damp woods, usually on hillsides, usually acid soils in coniferous woods.


Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury var. parviflorum - Small Yellow Lady's-slipper. 2n = 20.


Rich, usually swampy, basic woods, bogs (chiefly basic), shores. [C. calceolus Linnaeus var. parviflorum (Salisbury) Fernald] Note: Most specimens from New England labeled as this variety are actuall var. makasin. The distributions mapped here are based on specimens at Harvard and specimens from Vermont at the University of Vermont.


Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury var. makasin (Farwell) Sheviak - . 2n = 20.


Thuja bogs and fens. [This relatively newly described taxon is not yet distinguished in some New England herbaria. The distributions mapped here are based on specimens at Harvard University, the University of New Hampshire and Vermont specimens at the University of Vermont.]


Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury var. pubescens (Willdenow) O.W. Knight - Large Yellow Lady's-slipper. 2n = 20.


Rich woodlands. [C. calceolus Linnaeus var. pubescens (Willdenow) Correll]


Cypripedium reginae Walter - Showy Lady's-slipper. 2n = 20, 22.


Bogs, swamps, swampy woods, in basic soils.



CYSTOPTERIS (Family: Woodsiaceae)


Cystopteris bulbifera (Linnaeus) Bernhardi - Bulblet Fern. 2n = (42), 84.


Calcareous, usually moist, ledges, steep banks, rocky slopes, and ravines.


Cystopteris fragilis (Linnaeus) Bernhardi - Fragile Fern. 2n = (84), (126), 168, (252), (336).


Moist rocks, rocky (mostly wooded) slopes.


Cystopteris laurentiana (Weatherby) Blasdell - . 2n = 252.


Cliffs, often calcareous. [C. fragilis (Linnaeus) Bernhardi var. laurentiana Weatherby]


Cystopteris protrusa (Weatherby) Blasdell - Southern Bladder Fern. 2n = 84, (126).


Moist, often calcareous, wooded slopes, rocky banks, and alluvium. [C. fragilis (Linnaeus) Bernhardi var. protrusa Weatherby]


Cystopteris tenuis (Michaux) Desvaux - Mackay's Fragile Fern. 2n = 168.


Moist, shaded rocks, rocky (mostly wooded) slopes, alluvium, open woods. [C. fragilis (Linnaeus) Bernhardi var. mackayi G. Lawson]

Cystopteris hybrid


Cystopteris fragilis (Linnaeus) Bernhardi X C. tenuis (Michaux) Desvaux
- .




CYTISUS (Family: Fabaceae)


CYTISUS SCOPARIUS (Linnaeus) Link var. SCOPARIUS - Scot’s Broom. 2n = (24), 46, 48, (64).


Sandy fields, openings and roadsides, dunes, beaches. From Europe.





Designed by Ray Angelo. Revised Jan. 21, 2017